Vitamins, Minerals, and Fibers

Vitamins – Vital Ingredients of The Food

Vitamins are vital ingredients of the food. They do not provide energy but are indispensable for many metabolic processes.

Vitamins: Detailed

Vitamins are organic substances that the organism needs for certain vital functions, but can not, or only in insufficient quantities, produce itself. Vitamins are thus essential, i. they must be ingested regularly with food. The daily requirement for these micronutrients is low compared to the required amounts of energy supplying nutrients.

Provitamins are vitamin precursors, which are only converted into the active vitamin in the body.

Requirements and quantity recommendation:

The need for vitamins depends on the individual, his physical and psychological condition (eg illnesses, stress). The information for adequate vitamin intake should take into account: age, gender, level of performance, health status, dietary composition, etc.

The indicated desirable daily intake levels contain a safety margin that exceeds the requirement. The indicated quantities do not have to be recorded daily. On average, however, the supply should correspond to these quantities.

As critical vitamins, i. Vitamins, which are often below the recommended intake, are the vitamins B1, B2, B6, and folic acid in Germany. To detect possible deficiencies in the supply of vitamins, nutrient recommendations are issued, which apply to about 97% of the population.

As you can see in the sometimes very different intake recommendations for vitamins and minerals, there is still no certainty about what quantities the human body needs exactly. The individual needs may vary. For some vitamins, different values ​​apply for women and men, as well as for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Age also influences the nutritional requirements as well as diseases or special burdens.

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There are two groups of vitamins:

  • Fat-soluble vitamins:

Vitamins A, D, E, and K are included in the group of fat-soluble vitamins. The absorption of fat-soluble vitamins is done together with dietary fats. Excessive vitamins of this group are stored in the body. Man can get by these supplies after a regular and sufficient supply for some time with less intake quantities. The body can only excrete small amounts of these vitamins via the intestine. As a result, overdose is possible. Beware of self-medication!

  • Water-soluble vitamins:

Vitamin C and the Vitamin B Complex (Vitamin B1, B2, B6, B12, Niacin (PP), Pantothenic Acid (Coenzyme A), Folic Acid (M), Biotin (H), Rutin (P), Ortoic Acid (B13), Pangametine (B15)) are water-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins can only be stored in small quantities. The body’s storage capacity for these vitamins varies greatly: Vitamin B1: 1-2 weeks, B2, B6, C, and niacin: 2-6 weeks, folic acid: 3-4 months, B12: 3-5 years. [Lit-1] Therefore, they must be supplied to the body regularly in sufficient quantity. Surpluses are excreted via the kidneys (urine). Overdoses are still possible.

Minerals / Quantity Elements 

Minerals are components of inorganic food that cannot be produced by the body itself. Minerals are essential (vital) components of all living cells and are involved in the metabolism.

Minerals: Detailed

The proportion of minerals in the human body is about 4% of body weight.

Minerals are differentiated according to the amount in which they occur in the body. Volume elements are minerals that are contained in the human body at more than 50 mg per kg of body weight. Trace elements are minerals that make up less than 50 mg per kg of body weight. The quantity elements are often referred to as minerals (as on this page) also in contrast to the trace elements.

Humans need minerals for many functions, eg. As for the build-up of body substances (bones, muscles) and the maintenance of enzyme activities.

Purpose of minerals in the body:

  • Minerals are part of the skeleton and teeth. They give the bones the strength.
  • Minerals affect in dissolved form, as electrolytes, vital properties of body fluids, eg. B. Maintenance of osmotic pressure.
  • Minerals are essential components of organic compounds in the body. Iodine is part of the thyroid hormone, cobalt of vitamin B12, the iron of hemoglobin, etc.

Minerals in food:

How high the mineral content of various foods depends not least on how many minerals contained the soil on which the plant grew or what the animal got to eat. It should also be noted that some nutrients may have a beneficial or inhibiting effect on mineral intake.

Fiber-How-much-and-for-what

Fiber: How much and for what?

What is dietary fiber?

The term “dietary fiber” comes from a time when these food ingredients have been considered as “superfluous ballast”.

The fiber is mostly carbohydrates. It used to be thought that dietary fiber was not usable by the human body because human digestive juices contain no enzymes that can break down these compounds. It has been overlooked that some of the dietary fiber is fermented by enzymes of the microorganisms of the large intestine. In addition to gases, short-chain fatty acids, which can be utilized by humans, are also produced. The energy gain from dietary fiber (2-3 kcal / g) is negligible due to the low amounts added. The intake recommendation of the DGE of 30 g fiber per day is often not reached.

The fibers include cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, agar-agar, lignin, etc.

One distinguishes between insoluble and soluble fiber.

The insoluble fiber can increase its volume thanks to its high swelling capacity. That is, they bind fluid, thereby increasing the volume of the intestinal contents, which in turn accelerates the natural intestinal movement and reduces the residence time of the chyme in the intestine. Ingested in sufficient quantities, they can prevent widespread constipation.

The soluble fiber binds bile acids (which consist of 80 percent cholesterol) and other metabolic products and ensures their elimination. In this way less cholesterol gets into the blood and the cholesterol level drops.

All fiber, except lignin, can bind water. In the so-called swelling substances, the water-binding can be up to 100 times its own weight.

Effect of dietary fiber:

Positive effect of fiber

    • lasting satiety
    • Binding and removal of cholesterol and bile acid, thereby lowering cholesterol levels.
    • Increase in colonic mobility (mobility)
    • Water retention in the colon, which contributes to a supple chair.
    • Prevention of a number of chronic bowel diseases.
    • possibly reducing the colorectal cancer risk

Negative effect of dietary fiber

    • Flatulence due to gas formation of microorganisms
    • additional contamination with xenobiotics
    • direct epithelial damage (intestinal mucosal tissue)
    • Binding of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc, which reduces their absorption rate.
    • Intestinal entanglement due to excessive colon filling.

Fiber in food:

Dietary fiber is found only in vegetable products, especially whole grains, legumes, vegetables, salads, sprouts and fruit.

Fiber in 100g food:

    • Oatmeal: 10 g
    • Wheat Germ: 17.7 g
    • Wheat bran: 45.4 g
    • Rice: 4.5 g
    • Crispbread: 14 g
    • Peas: 16.6 g
    • Corn: 9.7 g
    • Lentils: 17 g
    • Soybeans: 21.9 g
    • Beans, white: 23.2 g
    • Kale: 4.2 g
    • Cauliflower: 26.3 g
    • Carrots: 12.1 g
    • Prunes, dried: 5.0 g
    • Whole wheat pasta: 8.0 g

Amino Acids And Their Importance For Weight Loss

Amino acids, vitamins, minerals and trace elements are of great importance in weight loss.

Whether we start adding more fat or staying lean is essentially determined by the hormones. And here lies the key to losing weight: Through a targeted intake of certain amino acids, we encourage the organism to produce enough slimming hormones. Always natural and in line with physical needs.

An important slimming hormone is growth hormone (STH). This hormone is produced during sleep; It increases protein synthesis and promotes fat loss. Obese people characteristically show low levels of STH, which often makes weight reduction difficult.

The growth hormone is unfortunately expensive (about 500 – 800 euros for a monthly ration) and the injection requires very competent medical supervision. It is therefore more dangerous to stimulate the natural, body-own release of this hormone. Certain amino acids have been shown to do just that in many cases when taken at night on an empty stomach in sufficient quantity.

The amino acids with these abilities are:

    • Arginin
    • Glutamin
    • Methionin

The synthesis of growth hormone also requires vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc.

Studies have shown that obesity may be deficient in carnitine.

Then a carnitine substitution (dietary supplement) could certainly be useful. Carnitine is a biocarrier (transport substance), which is synthesized in the liver – and as a precursor in the kidney – from the two essential amino acids lysine and methionine. It acts as a carrier molecule in the transport of long-chain fatty acids through the inner mitochondrial membrane. Long-chain fatty acids can pass through the membrane only by esterification with carnitine, while medium and short-chain fatty acids penetrate them without this carrier (transport molecule)

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Carnitine as a fat burner

Carnitine gets the fatty acids faster and throws them into the kiln of metabolism. The result: the organism breaks down fat (instead of storing it). Because of its fat-burning effect, this substance is also used for weight loss and often referred to as a “fat burner”.

The formation of carnitine takes place in five synthetic steps, involving the essential cofactors vitamin B6, vitamin B12, niacin, folic acid. A deficiency of one of these substances can lead to a limited biosynthesis.

Professor Luppa of the University of Leipzig wrote in his 2004 essay on L-carnitine as a fat burner: “In terms of preventing obesity, measures to improve fat loss are more effective than the current strict restrictions on dietary fat intake. The prerequisite, however, is the optimal function of the pathways of lipid metabolism and its regulation. L-carnitine is involved in both cases together as important cofactors. Lack of L-carnitine reduces the breakdown of fatty acids in the mitochondrial matrix due to its carrier function. In addition, L-carnitine, as a substrate of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT), plays a key role in the regulation of fat and carbohydrate metabolism.

It also states: Restrictions in the availability of L-carnitine are not only evident in the adaptability of lipid metabolism. The carbohydrate and protein metabolism are also affected. As a result, low blood sugar levels and increased protein breakdown may occur.

It clearly shows that carnitine can increase the fat burning of the body in certain cells.

In addition, there are studies by two scientists from Geneva and the USA, who show for the first time that a dose of carnitine also increases the mobilization of fatty acids from the adipocytes (fat cells) and increases the burning of fatty acids in the adipocytes.

There is also sufficient data on seven animal models, all of which clearly demonstrate that carnitine supplementation during a reduced-calorie diet results in a significant decrease in body fat compared to placebo, with an associated increase in lean muscle mass.

Carnitine facilitates weight management

Great attention is paid to a clinical study from 2013. It has been shown that supplementation with 500 mg L-carnitine per day in combination with motivation training ensures significant weight loss in obese people. With unchanged diet and exercise, each study participant lost on average 400 g of body fat within 4 weeks. The abdominal circumference decreased by 1.3 cm on average.

Glutamine counteracts fat storage

Glutamine can be converted into glucose in the kidneys without affecting glucagon and insulin levels. Thus, it also contributes to an energy production that is able to bypass the insulin-induced fat deposition.

It counteracts the storage of dietary fat, thus helping to regulate body weight. One study found that adding glutamine to a fatty diet resulted in fat reduction. On top of that, glutamine can reduce the craving for sugar and alcohol.

B vitamins and zinc are also important for burning fat. Vitamin B is a great help when losing weight, because almost all B vitamins boost the body’s fat burning. In addition, they are a real nerve food – and this is not to be underestimated for weight loss. The B vitamins riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), biotin (B7) and cobalamin (B12) are responsible for controlling the metabolism and stimulating the breakdown of body fat. Vitamin B2 is particularly effective in burning fat as it quickly turns proteins, carbohydrates and fats into energy. Similarly, the role of the trace element is zinc. It supports the body in the processing of fat and carbohydrates and is indispensable for a functioning protein metabolism. Only with sufficient zinc intake can the amino acids fulfill their important fat metabolism tasks.

Which foods improve the metabolism?

The physical condition of the person better kicking intensive metabolic processes. Problems with metabolism – immediately added weight and increased the level of slagging. We often hear phrases that say “what can be eaten to lose weight …”. Of course, that’s a joke, but in each of them, as they say, just a fraction of the same joke. After all, there are products in the application of which improves the metabolism and does not show the extra weight. What foods improve the metabolism, and today we will tell.

As you know, the water – the beginning of all beginnings on earth. It is everywhere and impossible without it, life itself. Scientists have conducted many studies that have proven the water, being the main product, and is one of the main promoters of metabolic processes. Of this 80 percent is our body, and it is involved in all processes of the body. It does not suffice, it slows down the metabolic processes, but if enough water is enough, metabolic processes are performed by 100 percent. For a normal person the body takes about two liters a day.

One of the main products, metabolism, – Paprika. Peppery chili and spicy, the substance contains capsaicin, which improves metabolism. Scientists have proved that the food is pepper gives a strong boost, which leads to the acceleration of metabolism by about a quarter. And it turned out that capsaicin is harmful to malignant cell tissue. The substance action on the mitochondria of the cells, which are responsible for the energy supply of the cells, which leads to their mass destruction.

Green tea also improves the metabolism of the body. Elements of tea prevent the formation of free radicals acting prophylactically on cardiovascular disease. Green tea speeds up your metabolism.

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Low-fat dairy products – is also a great way to improve your metabolism. However, very few people know it. They are very rich in calcium. Dairy products help the body produce kaltsitriolan – the hormone that helps cells to burn fat. Scientists have proved that regular consumption of dairy products can increase the production rate of metabolism up to 70 percent.

Of course, talking about the products, stimulating metabolic processes, one can not say about the citrus fruits. Grapefruit juice, for example, reduces the level of insulin in the blood, which reduces the desire to eat “everything”. As you know, the less you eat, the fewer calories it gets into the body, and as a result, the less extra kilos you can earn. Citrus stimulate the digestive tract and increase the immunity of the body. They – the perfect prophylaxis against diseases of the heart, blood vessels, liver. By itself vitamin C is very volatile, but if we add the fruits and vegetables, citrus fruits that are “keep” an even stronger. Orange, tangerine, lemon juice, even after cooking also retain the vitamins. Citrus useful fresh and canned.

It is well known that whole grains also improves metabolism. They have a lot of fiber. Digesting the natural fiber, the body needs more energy, and therefore spent a lot of calories. Whole grains retain all minerals and vitamins in their natural form. Luckily, today in stores you will find a rich assortment of whole grain products.

For many, it is difficult to imagine a meal without added meat products, but it is not only reasonable, but very essential. The only meat should not be too fat. Suitable fish, poultry. Meat is rich in protein, which digests the body with difficulty. Therefore, to digest it, your body will need to increase energy costs and burn more calories. When using meat products, metabolic processes accelerated more than fifty percent.

To speed up the metabolic processes of the body are very useful spices. In your diet, add ginger, herbs, cinnamon and other fragrant spices, we increase the metabolic rate by about ten percent, and stimulate the activity of the organism as a whole.

Sweet toothed cats will be glad to know that you feel conscience, eating chocolate, but only natural, but not milk or something else. Bitter chocolate also improves the natural rhythms of the body’s metabolism.

They can speed up the work of metabolism by eating nuts, but they do not have to get involved. They give a feeling of fullness, but at the same time they are extremely high in calories.