Bipolar Affective Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a mental illness and is one of the affect disorders. Hence, it is also known as bipolar affective disorder (BAS). Bipolar disorders are characterized by extreme mood swings that can hardly be controlled at will. Longer-lasting depressive phases usually alternate with shorter euphoric and/or aggressive states. In particularly severe attacks, the manic phases can lead to psychosis with delusions such as megalomania or paranoia.


Bipolar disorder is one of the rare affect disorders. The probability of a disease in the course of life (lifetime prevalence) is a maximum of 3 percent. Men and women are equally often affected. The frequency peak is in young adults between 18 and 25 years of age. Bipolar disorders are more often associated with other mental illnesses such as anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The incidence is also significantly higher in addicts and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).


Characteristic symptoms of bipolar disorder are strong mood swings that go far beyond the normal range and beyond that cannot be controlled by those affected.

Psychologists and neurologists distinguish between two main patterns. In the so-called bipolar I disorder, those affected experience extremely strong manic and depressive phases. In bipolar II disorder, the mood swings are much less pronounced. This is especially true in the manic phase. Doctors also speak of hypomania here.

Bipolar Affective Disorder

Symptoms Of Hypomania

A hypomanic episode of bipolar disorder usually lasts for about 4 days. Above all, it is characterized by an exceptionally high mood, which is not infrequently accompanied by increased irritability. Hypomania can resemble a healthy high mood. Hence there are other criteria for diagnosis. Accordingly, a hypomanic phase can be assumed if at least 3 of the following symptoms apply:

    • increased activity and restlessness
    • increased performance
    • unusual wealth of ideas
    • Conversation (torrent of speech, monologues)
    • Difficulty concentrating
    • decreased need for sleep
    • increased libido
    • reckless behavior
    • unusual sociability

Symptoms of the manic phase

In a manic episode, the symptoms are significantly more severe. Euphoria and restlessness know no bounds. Those affected are often barely recognizable to family members or friends. In pronounced phases, manic people know no limits and sometimes lose all risk control. This leads to reckless behavior, even without any self-protection. In a manic phase, people sometimes jump off bridges, knowing that they can fly – or that they are invulnerable.

Symptoms of the depressive phase

After about 7 to 10 days of the manic episode, a normal state often occurs for a short time. Moods and feelings can be influenced again and can be controlled normally. Sometime later, people with bipolar disorder lapse into a depression that usually lasts for weeks or months. Symptoms of the depressive phase are, for example, extremely sad mood, greatly reduced interest in family, friends, and acquaintances, weight loss or weight gain, increased need for sleep (sometimes throughout the day), extreme exhaustion and lack of energy, and recurring suicidal thoughts.


The causes of bipolar disorder have not yet been clarified. Presumably, there is a hereditary component. But that is not clearly proven either. It is noticeable that bipolar disorders are often associated with other mental illnesses. These include anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and addictions (especially illegal drugs and alcohol).


    • Bipolar disorder is usually treated with a combination of psychotherapy and drug therapy.
    • Drug therapy for bipolar disorders

Antidepressants such as imipramine, clomipramine, or amitriptyline are sometimes used to lift mood and improve drive during periods of depression. However, there is a risk that those affected will slide into a manic phase more quickly. In the case of bipolar disorders, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have proven to be more effective in the depressive phase. These include citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline, among others.

In acute manic phases, it may be necessary to suppress the mania with mood modulators from the group of typical neuroleptics such as haloperidol and loxapine. Medicines from the group of atypical neuroleptics such as risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone are another alternative.

However, this form of drug therapy is usually only used in the acute phase, when those affected are forcibly committed to inpatient accommodation because of behavior that is harmful to themselves or others.

Many sufferers benefit from oral lithium in the prevention of acute attacks. However, it often takes a while to find the right dosage for the individual. In addition, adherence to therapy must be strong. Irregularities in the intake quickly lead to a new episode. Other live prophylactic drugs are carbamazepine, valproic acid, and lamotrigine.

Psychotherapy for bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder responds well to psychotherapeutic treatment. The prerequisite for this, however, is that those affected are ready for therapy at all. In addition, a framework must be created that is conducive to the psychological stability of those affected. At least at the beginning of psychotherapy, this is usually only possible in a specialized clinic. After a successful inpatient start, the therapy must be continued on an outpatient basis. In most cases, stable freedom from symptoms is only achieved after a longer treatment period of around 2 years.

Take a Look at Symptoms of Celiac Disease in Children and Adults

Symptoms of celiac disease in children are sometimes invisible. However, there is a long list of symptoms you can check to make sure that your child’s condition. This serious autoimmune disorder frequently affects children. It is mentioned to affect 1 to 100 people around the world. Genetically predisposed people with the ingestion of gluten can lead to damage in the small intestine. Those people are the ones who can get affected by this serious autoimmune disorder. In order to know more about this disease, it is best to read this on.

More about Celiac Disease

It is mentioned that some people have no symptoms sometimes. It makes this disease is difficult to be diagnosed at first. This case affects children the most. There will be signs and symptoms of celiac disease in toddlers. Gluten cannot be eaten by people with this disorder. Gluten is a protein that can be found in barley, wheat, and rye. For sufferers of celiac who eat gluten, the body will mount an immune response which attacks the small intestine. Attacks created there will lead to damage on the villi which promotes nutrient absorption.

For your information, villi are small finger-like projections which line the small intestine. You must have guessed what will happen when villi get damaged. Yes, it cannot absorb nutrients any longer. When there is no nutrient absorbed in the body, it is the time when you need to feel there is something wrong inside of the body.


Symptoms of Celiac Disease in a Child

There are several symptoms of celiac disease in a child. These symptoms may appear and may not. If it appears anyway, you better see a doctor to get diagnosed properly. Most of the time, digestive symptoms are more common in which you can see it in infants and children. Here is a pretty long list of symptoms you need to know.

This autoimmune disorder has symptoms such as Children with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), short stature, fatigue, weight loss, constipation, abdominal bloating and pain, vomiting, chronic diarrhea, irritability and behavioral issues, delayed growth and puberty, fatty stool, pale, foul-smelling, and also failure to thrive. Those are the most common symptoms you can see from sufferers of celiac disease. The additional information you need to know is that this disease runs in families or called as hereditary. If your family has a history of the disease and your child show symptoms mentioned above, it is best to get a medical diagnosis.

Symptoms of Celiac Disease in Adults

Unlike symptoms of celiac disease in children, symptoms in adults show less likely to have digestive symptoms. There are several symptoms you can find in adults and we will mention to you here. Those symptoms are itchy skin rash, recurrent miscarriage or infertility, depression or anxiety, arthritis, fatigue, missed menstrual periods, liver and biliary tract disorders, bone or joint pain, migraines or seizures, osteopenia or osteoporosis,  peripheral neuropathy, and unexplained iron deficiency anemia. Those all are symptoms in adults you should know to get the best thing to do next.