Glycemic Index Used To Measure Blood Sugar Levels

In one case, a high-carbohydrate diet can be just the right way to get overweight under control. Others seem to be exactly the opposite. Scientific studies underline this statement: the less fat and the more carbohydrates people ingest, the fatter and sicker they get! The reasons for this are complex: There are carbohydrates that get very quickly from the intestines into the bloodstream and cause a rise in blood sugar levels.

Influence Of Carbohydrates On Insulin Levels

Insulin – a hormone from the pancreas – now has to regulate the blood sugar level back into the normal range. If the blood sugar level rises sharply, there is an enormous activation of insulin and, as a result, a drop in blood sugar below the norm. This hypoglycemia manifests itself as tiredness and an increased appetite for sweet foods. If you give in to cravings and eat foods rich in carbohydrates, the blood sugar can again rise above the norm and cause further insulin activation. Accordingly, hypoglycemia and hypoglycemia alternate regularly with a corresponding release of insulin.

This is where the problem begins: a high-carbohydrate diet can be a cause of increased insulin levels. As medical research has shown, an excess of insulin means that the organism does not burn fats that it ingests with food, but instead increasingly stores it as fat reserves, while at the same time reducing fat loss. In short: high insulin levels can lead to weight gain. However, the influence of carbohydrate foods on this process varies. Some have the ability to raise blood sugar levels more than others.

Glycemic Index Used To Measure Blood Sugar Levels

The so-called glycemic index (GI) is used to assess which carbohydrates are “good” and which are “bad”. The GI is a measurement that tells you how much your blood sugar level rises after consuming a certain food. A low GI is below 40, a medium is 40-70 and a high one is above 80. The selection of carbohydrate sources with low and medium GI is advantageous, as these cause only slight fluctuations in blood sugar and insulin and thus disinhibit fat burning.

Glycemic Index

The Glycemic Index is a practical tool for diet planning for weight loss, but it should not be overstated. Studies show that there are strong intra- and inter-individual differences in the GI. Intra-individual differences mean that one and the same person can have different blood sugar levels depending on the time of day and previous physical activity. Early in the morning, there is typically a lower increase in blood sugar levels and thus insulin than in the evening, as the cells’ insulin sensitivity decreases over the course of the day. Exercise also leads to a lower increase in the level of glucose in the blood. This means that there can be differences of up to 30% in the GI for the same person and the same food.

It should also be borne in mind that when determining the glycemic index, the food was eaten in isolation and contained exactly 50 g of carbohydrates, which does not correspond to natural eating habits at all. Rather, our food consists of a combination of different foods, which can have a strong influence on the course of the blood sugar level. Combining carbohydrates with fat, protein, and/or fiber results in a slower or faster rise in blood glucose than with isolated administration.

In addition, there are foods with a relatively high GI, but due to their low carbohydrate content, they do not trigger any significant fluctuations in blood sugar. For example, to take in 50 g of carbohydrates by eating carrots with a high GI of 71, one would have to consume around 850 g of carrots. The actual effect on the blood sugar level and thus on the insulin release is correspondingly small with a normal portion of 100-150 g.

With regard to the insulin response, the glycemic index alone is of little informative value, since the insulin response is dependent on both the type and the number of carbohydrates supplied and is also influenced by other nutrients. In order to take this into account, the term “Glycemic Load” (GL) has recently been used, translated as glycemic load or glycemic load. The GL is calculated by dividing the glycemic index by 100 and multiplying the result by the number of carbohydrates consumed. Accordingly, z. B. with 5.3 the value for the glycemic load of 100 g carrots. Large portions of pasta, rice, potatoes, and pastries have a high glycemic load. Scientific studies show an increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disorders in a diet with high GL.

Typical Symptoms Of Sore Throat

Symptoms

The reddened lining of the throat, scratching and pain in the throat, difficulty swallowing, and fever are the typical symptoms of a sore throat. Often, as a sign of an alarming immune system, the lymph nodes in the lower jaw and neck are swollen. In the case of tonsillitis (the technical term is angina tonsillaris or tonsillitis), there are also swollen and reddened or even ulcerated tonsils. If the larynx or vocal cords are inflamed, there is also hoarseness.

A scratchy, swollen throat is often associated with a cold or flu. In many cases, there are also annoying swallowing difficulties and hoarseness. You can find out more about the causes and treatment of sore throats here.

It often begins with a scratchy throat or difficulty swallowing: sore throats announce themselves. Most often, a sore throat is a symptom of a cold, flu, or other respiratory infection. Typically, a sore throat will go away with the underlying viral infection. Antibiotics help if the cause of infection is bacterial, such as tonsillitis.

Causes

A sore throat can be a symptom of an isolated infection caused by a virus or bacteria. Most often, a sore throat is a symptom of a cold, flu, or other respiratory infection. The germs cause inflammation of the mucous membrane in the throat area. Depending on where the pathogens settle, a distinction is made between inflammation of the lining of the throat (pharyngitis), inflammation of the vocal cords or larynx (laryngitis), or tonsillitis or angina tonsillaris. Mixed forms also occur.

In addition to bacteria and viruses, sore throats can also be caused by overuse of the voice and irritation of the airways (for example from chemicals, tobacco smoke, or dust). Other diseases such as mumps, scarlet fever, or Pfeifferscher’s glandular fever also cause sore throats.

Sore throats also occur due to esophageal or stomach disorders. The backflow of stomach contents through the esophagus causes heartburn, which is often accompanied by a sore throat.

Sore Throat

Causes Of A Sore Throat At A Glance

    • Cold, flu, angina (tonsillitis)
    • Overuse of the voice by singing, shouting, talking for a long time
    • Irritation of the respiratory tract from chemicals, smoke, or dusty, dry air
    • other diseases, e.g. glandular fever, pseudocroup, mumps, scarlet fever
    • Heartburn from gastric acid reflux
    • very rarely malignant tumors in the throat area.

Treatment

Sore throats usually do not require medical attention. Exceptions: The symptoms are very severe, do not subside after a few days, there are breathing difficulties or there is a suspicion of tonsillitis or other diseases.

Treatment Of A Sore Throat At The Doctor

If a bacterial infection is causing a sore throat, your doctor will prescribe antibiotics to fight the bacteria that cause disease. Antibiotics do not help with viral infections. Here the symptoms can be alleviated with home remedies and over-the-counter medicines.

Home Remedies For A Sore Throat

The following home remedies have proven to be particularly effective for helping yourself with a sore throat.

    • drink a lot
    • keep warm, especially your throat and chest, but do not sweat
    • keep the room air moist in winter
    • Avoid irritants, do not smoke
    • Gargling or inhaling herbal ingredients from arnica, Icelandic moss, chamomile flowers, thyme, linden flowers or sage leaves.

Over-The-Counter Drugs For A Sore Throat

    • Disinfecting gargle solutions, mouth sprays, or lozenges with active ingredients such as hexetidine or cetylpyridinium chloride have anti-inflammatory effects.
    • In the case of slight reddening and pain, anti-inflammatory lozenges or rinsing solutions (e.g. chamomile or sage extracts for rinsing, tablets containing dexpanthenol for sucking) are effective.
    • Lozenges or sprays with superficial anesthetics help with pain and difficulty swallowing.
    • In the case of more severe pain, short-term anti-inflammatory pain pills for ingestion with acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen or paracetamol, which at the same time reduce fever, are useful.
    • The local application of antibiotics usually does not make sense.

Prevention

It is only possible to a limited extent to prevent a sore throat. Basically, the same recommendations apply that you can read under respiratory infections and colds.

Homeopathy

Homeopathy is viewed as a stimulus therapy in which the body is given incentives to heal a disease on its own by taking certain, highly diluted remedies. The term “homeopathy” is made up of the Greek words “homoios” (similar) and “pathos” (suffering). In homeopathy, the disease is mainly treated by means that work according to the so-called similarity principle. It is based on the observation that a substance that causes certain complaints in humans or animals can also cure the same (or similar) complaints. Within homeopathic teaching, there are different directions with different conceptions of how the homeopathic principles should be implemented.

Origin And Philosophy Of Homeopathy

The principle of similarity occurs in different cultures and also in the writings of the ancient Greeks, for example with Hippocrates. The similarity principle was also taken up, again and again, later in the course of medical history. The German doctor, pharmacist, and chemist Dr. Med. Habil. However, Samuel Hahnemann (1755 – 1843) was the first to systematize this principle and use it as the basis for a new direction in medicine. His “Organon” and other publications are still used in practice by homeopaths today.

Hahnemann developed homeopathy on the basis of a large number of self-experiments with medicinal products. His first self-experiment took place with cinchona bark, which was used to treat intermittent fever (malaria). Hahnemann took a large amount of cinchona bark without having a fever himself and developed a fever. After several further attempts with different drugs, he came to the conclusion that substances that cause certain symptoms (e.g. fever) in healthy people can cure the same symptoms (e.g. febrile colds) in sick people. According to Hahnemann, the organism of a sick person receives an impulse from the drug to use its defenses in a targeted manner against certain symptoms of the disease.

The principle of homeopathy is based on these findings: «Similia similibus curentur» (the like is cured by the like). Hahnemann discovered in further theoretical and practical investigations with medicinal products that the effectiveness of the substances changes due to their concentration. Diluted drugs often showed a stronger effect than the undiluted basic substance. Thereupon he developed a special production and dosage theory, the potentization process and the principle of the smallest dose.

Manufacture Of Homeopathic Remedies

When producing homeopathic remedies, one proceeds according to a homeopathic drug book. The starting substance is gradually diluted in a certain ratio with water, alcohol or lactose and potentized after each dilution step by shaking or rubbing. Today, three different dilution series are used in homeopathy: D, C, and LM. The only difference between the D and C series is the dilution ratio:

D = decimal power

Dilution ratio: 1: 9 (Latin decem = 10)

In the D series, one part of Vorpotenz (for example D1) is mixed with nine parts of thinner and then shaken vigorously at least ten times (liquids) or rubbed in a mortar for an hour (powder). The result is a D2, which you dilute again tenfold and potentiate to produce the D3.

C = centesimal power

Dilution ratio: 1:99 (Latin centum = 100)

In the C series, one part of pre-potency (for example C1) is mixed with ninety-nine parts of diluent and then potentized.

LM or Q power:

Each dilution step corresponds to a ratio between starting substance and diluent of 1: 50,000.

Hahnemann developed the third series of potentiations, called LM or Q potency, in the last years of his life. LM potencies are produced using a special, very complex process. Each dilution step corresponds to a ratio between the starting substance and the diluent of 1: 50,000. The higher the number after the D, C or LM, the stronger and longer-lasting the effect of the homeopathic medicine.

Powers above D30 or C30 are called high potencies. These are mainly used by homeopaths to treat chronic ailments.

Homeopathy

Application Of Homeopathy

Homeopathic remedies are mainly supplied in the form of globules, drops, tablets, and ointments. Some doctors also give homeopathic medicines through a syringe. Before a new homeopathic drug is used to treat sick people, it is only tried on healthy test subjects (drug testing on healthy people). These write down the physical and psychological changes that occur after taking the product. These changes indicate which symptoms in sick people could be alleviated with the same remedy. For example, homeopathically diluted bee venom (apis) is used to relieve symptoms caused by a bee sting, provided that it is a pink swelling that is warm to the touch and the pain is relieved by applying ice. Another simple example is remedies made from homeopathically diluted onion extracts. These are given off in the case of a cold, in which the eyes water and the nose runny.

In the case of complex diseases, the homeopath needs a lot of experience to find the right remedy. The active ingredients used in homeopathy mainly consist of natural substances such as plants, minerals, and animal substances. “Classically”, that is, according to Hahnemann’s teaching, working homeopaths administer so-called “individual remedies” to their patients. Individual remedies consist of a single basic substance, for example, a mineral, an animal substance, or an extract from a flower, and they contain a whole range of ingredients from the plant.

The homeopath recognizes that he has chosen the right remedy for the treatment of his patient, among other things by the so-called «initial worsening» (healing reaction) of the symptoms. This means that the patient’s illness may worsen in the initial phase of treatment. Such initial aggravations are usually more severe, the higher the potency of the administered agent, i.e. the greater the dilution. After the initial deterioration has disappeared, a significant improvement in the state of health can occur within a few days. Mixed preparations made from various individual remedies are mainly used in the treatment of acute illnesses such as flu, runny nose, or indigestion. They are very suitable for self-medication. However, many classic homeopaths reject the administration of mixed preparations.

So that the homeopathic remedies develop their optimal effectiveness, one should observe certain rules when taking them, for example, Homeopathic remedies should be taken as often as necessary and as rarely as possible. The more acute and serious disease is, the more often you should take the remedy. If the symptoms of the disease improve significantly, the homeopathic remedy should no longer be taken. If possible, you should not combine several homeopathic remedies. In the event of a healing reaction, the drug should be discontinued until the reaction has completely disappeared.

Homeopathic Technique

Before each homeopathic treatment, the individual clinical picture must be precisely recorded in a detailed and long conversation. In the initial consultation, the patient describes his symptoms as detailed as possible so that the homeopath can draw conclusions about appropriate homeopathic remedies from the clinical picture. In the case of headaches, for example, a distinction is made between whether the pain is felt as throbbing, pulling, or stabbing, whether the pain tends to subside in the fresh air or in closed rooms, or whether the patient feels the need to lie down to relieve the symptoms. The homeopath chooses a suitable remedy depending on the pain sensation. Further information about the patient will help him with this. He, therefore, asks about the patient’s inclinations, interests, character, and reactions to environmental stimuli. He also takes physical characteristics such as height, weight, and constitution into account when making his assessment.

After the initial consultation, the homeopath looks up the important symptoms in a so-called “repertory”. This look-up is therefore called “repertorisation”. Depending on the nature of the complaints, the repertorization places more emphasis on the physical complaints or on the personality of the patient. In classical homeopathy, the same remedies are not administered to every patient with the same symptoms. Depending on the type of person affected, the treatment is adapted accordingly. For this reason, the first interview plays a crucial role. In contrast to chronic complaints, it is usually much easier to find the right remedy for acute illnesses. The dispensing of homeopathic remedies without considering accompanying symptoms as well as alleviating or worsening influences is not considered a correct homeopathic treatment in the circles of classic homeopaths practicing according to Hahnemann.

Effect Of Homeopathic Remedies

Hahnemann explained the effectiveness of homeopathic remedies by stating that it is not the concentration that is decisive, but the “dynamization” or the release of a force of the substances. This happens during potentization: By shaking the substance several times, the information on the basic substances should be transferred to the diluent, even if no basic substances can be detected materially or chemically. The effect of the diluted basic substances should enable the body to heal its illness with its own strength. In the meantime, many doctors trained in conventional medicine also use homeopathy to treat various diseases, for example:

    • Allergies (but not in the case of life-threatening reactions)
    • Defensive weakness
    • Chronic diseases
    • Psychosomatic illnesses

Side Effects Of Homeopathic Preparations

Today there are around 2500 homeopathic single and mixed preparations available, which are used for many diseases. However, a necessary surgical intervention or the supply of vital substances cannot be replaced by homeopathic therapy. That is why homeopathic remedies are only used as an accompanying therapy in the treatment of serious, acute illnesses.

Epigastric Hernia

Doctors call an epigastric hernia a break in the upper abdominal wall between the navel and the lower end of the sternum. When fat and connective tissue penetrate from the abdominal cavity through the layers of the abdominal wall and a sack-like protuberance of the peritoneum forms a so-called hernial sac, this is a hernia. Epigastric means: relating to the upper abdomen (the epigastrium).

Frequency

Epigastric hernias are comparatively rare. They only make up 5 percent of all hernias. Inguinal hernias (inguinal hernias) or umbilical hernias (umbilical hernias) are much more common.

Symptoms

In many cases, epigastric hernias go unnoticed because the fractures are either very weak or hardly any tissue from the abdominal cavity slides into the hernial sac.

When abdominal wall fractures cause discomfort, the fat and connective tissue of the large network, the so-called greater omentum, has often shifted. In rare cases, parts of the small intestine also enter the chest through an epigastric hernia. In these cases, severe upper abdominal discomfort usually occurs, which increases with pressure.

Epigastric Hernia

This pressure is usually built up from the inside, for example by carrying heavy loads. Persistent sneezing (for example with allergies), persistent coughing (for example with chronic lung diseases such as COPD) or strong pressure during bowel movements (especially with constipation) increase the pressure in the upper abdomen.

The bulging hernial sac is usually visible and palpable from the outside. In rare cases, acute epigastric hernias are accompanied by nausea, fever, or vomiting.

Complications

Complications arise when the tissue in the hernial sac of an epigastric hernia becomes twisted and disconnected from the blood supply. This is a medical emergency that requires immediate surgical treatment. If the trapped tissue dies, there is a risk of life-threatening infections of the chest or abdominal cavities such as peritonitis or pneumonia.

Treatment

Small abdominal wall hernias without symptoms do not necessarily have to be operated on. A symptomatic epigastric hernia is usually treated surgically (fracture closure), as the risk of abdominal organs slipping into the chest increases over time. If the abdominal wall needs stabilization, a plastic mesh can be implanted, for example, which reliably closes the abdominal wall hernia.

Pulmonary Emphysema

Pulmonary emphysema is primarily the end-stage of lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis or COPD. Read more about symptoms, causes, and treatment.

Definition

Pulmonary emphysema is a serious, progressive, and incurable disease of the lungs. Medical professionals also refer to it as pulmonary emphysema. The colloquial language is particularly familiar with the disease terms lung flatulence or lung overinflation. With pulmonary emphysema, lung function continues to decrease. This creates progressive shortness of breath. The associated lack of oxygen not only severely restricts physical performance. There are also secondary reactions that place a heavy strain on the heart, among other things. A typical consequence of emphysema is, for example, the cor pulmonale, a common form of right heart failure.

Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

In addition to the acquired form of emphysema, there is also a congenital variant. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is one of the rare diseases with 2.5 new cases per 10,000 inhabitants per year. In this disease, the congenital deficiency of the protein alpha-1-antitrypsin triggers chronic inflammatory processes in the lungs.

Frequency

According to experts, the frequency of emphysema is growing worryingly. Exact figures are not available because emphysema and COPD are not always properly recorded separately. But it is assumed that there are around a million cases in Germany. The vast majority of emphysema occurs in smokers over the age of 50.

Symptoms

A characteristic symptom of emphysema is increasing shortness of breath (dyspnoea). As a rule, the shortness of breath initially only occurs during physical exertion. As the disease progresses, there is difficulty breathing even when the body is at rest.

Advanced emphysema causes chronic oxygen deficiency, which can be recognized by the blue color of the lips and fingers (cyanosis). Another visible symptom of emphysema is a barrel-like enlargement of the upper body, the so-called barrel chest. Doctors speak of the barrel chest. The barrel breast is created because the lung tissue continues to inflate.

Causes

By far the most common cause of emphysema is chronic lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis. If the bronchial passages are permanently inflamed, narrowed, and cause shortness of breath, coughing, and increased sputum, this chronic bronchitis is one of the chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases that are described in more detail under COPD. Chronic bronchitis and COPD are also precursors of lung cancer. The most common cause of all these diseases smoking.

Pulmonary Emphysema

How Do The Symptoms Of Chronic Bronchitis Arise

In healthy people, the air you breathe reaches the alveoli via the bronchi. Gas exchange takes place in these alveoli. During the gas exchange, the elastic alveoli absorb the oxygen from the inhaled air and then release carbon dioxide from the blood with the exhaled air. That requires a certain elasticity. In the case of emphysema, this elasticity is gradually lost as a result of inflammatory processes. The alveoli become increasingly inelastic and are no longer able to completely release the exhaled air. As a result, less fresh inhaled air can be taken in. This causes the alveoli to expand and ultimately lose their function entirely. Sometimes the small alveoli transform into large emphysema bubbles.

The approximately 300 million alveoli of a healthy person have a surface area the size of a football field. With emphysema of the lungs, this area for gas exchange sometimes shrinks to the size of a towel.

Treatment

Pulmonary emphysema cannot be cured. Treatment can only relieve symptoms. The most important thing is to prevent the disease from progressing, or at least to slow it down. To do this, it is imperative to stop smoking.

Drug Therapy For Emphysema

The symptoms of not too advanced pulmonary emphysema can be alleviated by drug therapy. The aim of this therapy is to widen the bronchi (bronchodilation) and to stop the inflammatory processes in the lungs. So-called beta-2 sympathomimetics are often inhaled for this purpose. Active substances in this group are salbutamol, salmeterol, or reproterol. Anticholinergics like ipratropium or inhaled glucocorticoids like budesonide, beclometasone, or fluticasone have even stronger anti-inflammatory properties.

In the case of congenital alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, the protein can be given in the form of medication (infusions) and thus prevent the development of pulmonary emphysema. Unfortunately, the therapy is very costly and not as promising as one initially hoped it would be.

In the case of very advanced pulmonary emphysema, selected emphysema patients (younger than 60 years, high therapeutic motivation, no additional complications) only have a lung transplant as the last chance. The possibilities of artificial ventilation are very limited due to the characteristics of the disease.

Indicates Of Angina Pectoris (Chest Tightness)

Severe chest pain with a characteristic feeling of tightness in the chest is an indication of angina pectoris. They can be the harbinger or symptom of a heart attack. Get to know symptoms, causes, and therapy. Angina pectoris (or stenocardia) literally means “tightness in the chest”. That also describes the complaints. Those affected report a seizure-like, sometimes violent, feeling of tightness in the heart or chest area. These pain attacks indicate a circulatory disorder of the coronary arteries and an insufficient supply of the heart muscle. Thus, they are an important and typical symptom of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, every attack of angina pectoris can also be a heart attack.

Synonyms

Chest tightness, tightness of the heart, stenocardia

Forms Of Angina Pectoris

Doctors differentiate between stable and unstable angina pectoris and the special form of Prinzmetal’s angina.

    • Stable angina pectoris: Stable angina pectoris occurs depending on the load and is triggered by various factors. These include physical activities, emotional stress, stress, cold or even lavish meals. The intensity of the complaints remains almost the same with every attack.
    • Unstable angina pectoris: The unstable angina pectoris occurs independently of stress and is also known as resting angina. Any new chest tightness or chest tightness with variable symptoms is also unstable angina pectoris. Angina nocturna is a special form. The symptoms mainly occur at night. When lying down, more blood flows back into the heart. This represents a higher requirement for the previously damaged heart muscles. This additional stress manifests itself as angina pectoris.
    • Prinzmetal angina: Prinzmetal angina (also called vasospastic angina) is a special form of angina pectoris. The chest complaints are felt independently of stress, often at night, and are caused by vascular spasms.

Symptoms of angina are the most characteristic. A rather dull pain begins behind the breastbone and spreads over the chest in the shape of a tire. Often these pains are perceived as extremely strong, oppressive, and threatening. They typically radiate into the left arm, upper abdomen, neck, or lower jaw. Radiation to other areas of the body is also possible. In addition, there is often shortness of breath and cold sweat, blood pressure soars, and the pulse races. Some patients are scared to death. Sometimes angina pectoris is misinterpreted as heartburn or heartburn is mistaken for angina pectoris. In English, heartburn is therefore also referred to as heartburn.

An attack of angina pectoris can pass within seconds, but it can also last for minutes, less often for hours. If an attack lasts more than 15 minutes, a heart attack is suspected.

Indicates Of Angina Pectoris

Causes

Most angina is caused by Coronary Artery Disease (CHD). The coronary arteries are narrowed as a result of arteriosclerosis. As a result, the heart muscle is only insufficiently supplied with oxygen, especially when it is exerted. This reduced blood flow and insufficient oxygen supply cause the symptoms.

Angina pectoris is not only triggered by physical activities such as climbing stairs or jogging. Cold or heavy meals can also provoke an angina pectoris attack. When it is cold, for example, the resistance in the blood vessels increases. This reduces the blood flow to the heart muscle, and chest problems occur.

Lush meals stimulate digestive activity, the stomach and intestines have to be supplied with more blood. The heart muscle then has less blood available, which leads to an attack of angina pectoris.

Vascular Spasms Lead To Prinzmetal’s Angina

An exception to angina pectoris is Prinzmetal’s angina. In this form, the insufficient supply of myocardium is triggered by vascular spasms in the coronary arteries. These vascular cramps (spasms) occur mainly at night and at rest.

Examination

Angina pectoris is diagnosed based on the typical symptoms. For further clarification, a blood test, an electrocardiogram (EKG), and an image of the coronary vessels (coronary angiography) can follow.

Treatment

The therapy for angina pectoris is different. Depending on the severity of the symptoms and the condition of the coronary arteries and the heart muscle, medicinal or surgical measures are initiated.

Medicines For Angina Pectoris

Various active ingredients are available to the doctor for the drug treatment of angina pectoris:

    • The narrowed coronary arteries are usually dilated with nitro-based vasodilators (such as isosorbide mononitrate and isosorbide dinitrate) or molsidomine.
    • In addition, beta-blockers (e.g. atenolol, bisoprolol, carvedilol, and metoprolol), calcium antagonists (such as verapamil or diltiazem), and dihydropyridines (such as amlodipine and nifedipine) are often used to lower blood pressure and heart rate.
    • If beta-blockers are not tolerated or must not be taken, the relatively new active ingredient ivabradine can help. Ivabradine lowers the heart rate without affecting blood pressure or the strength of the muscles in the heart.
    • The active ingredient Trapidil can improve the blood flow to the heart muscle.
    • In order to reduce the risk of a vascular occlusion and thus the risk of a heart attack, low doses of acetylsalicylic acid and anticoagulant agents such as phenprocoumon are used.
    • Cholesterol-lowering drugs from the group of statins, for example, atorvastatin, simvastatin, lovastatin, or pravastatin, help to lower the risk of atherosclerosis or to stop the course of atherosclerosis.

Operative Therapy

Occasionally, narrowed coronary arteries are surgically widened or renewed. The methods of choice for the surgical treatment of angina pectoris are so-called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and bypass surgery. PCI is performed using a cardiac catheter. The doctor pushes a folded balloon up to the coronary arteries – usually through the inguinal artery. The balloon unfolds at the narrowed point (balloon dilatation) and holds the vessel open. A small lattice frame made of stainless steel (so-called stent) around the balloon sometimes secures this method.

In a bypass operation, a vascular blockage is bridged with another blood vessel.

Self Help

Even if an attack of angina pectoris feels threatening: keep calm. Sit up straight and try to breathe calmly and evenly. Usually, the pain goes away within a short time.

Patients with angina pectoris have spray or bite capsules with glycerol trinitrate (nitro spray, microcapsules) as emergency medication. After the application, the blood vessels dilate and breast problems usually improve quickly. If this is not the case, there could be a heart attack. In this case, please call the emergency doctor immediately.

Pay attention to the duration of the complaints. If the pain persists for more than 15 minutes, you should definitely alert the emergency services. Medical professionals refer to this condition as an acute coronary syndrome.

Prevention

Regular medical check-ups provide information on possible risk factors for angina pectoris (e.g. arteriosclerosis). If you are legally insured, you can have a check-up every two years from the age of 35 at Check-up 35. Above all, patients with diabetes and overweight as well as smokers should take advantage of this offer.

Smokers are also advised to stop using the vice. You can obtain information on this from your family doctor, health center or your health insurance company. Furthermore, you should pay attention to normal body weight and a healthy, varied diet. Patients with lipid metabolism disorders, high blood pressure values ​​, and diabetics should ensure normal blood values ​​and carefully follow their therapies.

Heart Rate Monitors

Physical activity can have positive effects on the human physique and psyche. This or something like that is the widespread opinion among the population. But it is often forgotten that “wrong” training often leads to negative or undesirable results. Overly ambitious sporting efforts quickly lead to overloading of the cardiovascular system, which in some cases can culminate in a heart attack in the untrained. The human pulse, or rather the heart rate, is an indicator of the “correct” training. This counts as an exertion indicator from which the current stress on the body can be read. With the help of the heart rate, conclusions can be drawn about your own training behavior in order to ensure an individually balanced and above all health-promoting training. The constant control of the heart rate protects the athlete from overexertion, which – as already mentioned – is not without danger, especially under high stress. On the other hand, there is the possibility of optimally planning the training in order to achieve the greatest possible training effect. Regardless of whether you want to build up your stamina, increase it or reduce weight.

Heart Rate Monitors

With the help of modern heart rate computers, also known colloquially as pulse monitors, the individually optimal heartbeats per minute can be calculated and controlled. Such a heart rate computer usually consists of a wristwatch with a display and a chest strap that measures the heart rate and transmits it telemetrically to the watch. There is a large number of manufacturers who offer such devices in all price ranges and with different specifications.

heart-rate-monitors

Furthermore, the modern cardio machines in fitness studios have receivers for the chest strap and can even take the pulse into account directly in the training programs. In order to be able to start pulse training, the athlete needs his “maximum heart rate”, which can be used to define the various training areas. It is possible to roughly calculate this value (220 – age), but this cannot be more than a guideline value. In order to get an exact result, it is advisable either to have a measurement carried out in the fitness studio or to use a heart rate monitor that can determine the “maximum heart rate”.

Guide Values ​​For Training

The following guidelines apply to training, depending on the training goal: Light training between 50% and 60% of the maximum value helps to stabilize your health. For optimal fat burning, it is advisable to keep the pulse between 60% and 70% of the maximum value. if you want to increase your endurance, you should vary your training heart rate between 70% and 85%. Overall, with balanced, health-oriented fitness training, the pulse should be between 50% and a maximum of 85% of the calculated maximum pulse.

Laparoscopy

Definition of laparoscopy

As a diagnostic method, it is mainly used for unclear abdominal complaints and when other examinations such as ultrasound or computer tomography did not provide any information. Laparoscopy is a minimally stressful (minimally invasive) procedure that takes place under general anesthesia. Depending on the scope of the examination, the laparoscopy is performed on an outpatient basis or in a hospital and takes about 10 to 30 minutes.

Application Examples For Laparoscopy

    • For women who want to have children, check the patency of the fallopian tubes as well as for sterilization.
    • Examination of the liver, pancreas, spleen, and uterus as well as the stomach and intestines.
    • Taking tissue samples for microscopic examination (biopsy) to assess whether a tumor is benign or malignant.
    • Testicle search

Operative interventions

    • Removal of the gallbladder (laparoscopic cholecystectomy)
    • Removal of kidney cysts
    • Removal of the appendix from the appendix (laparoscopic appendectomy) in appendicitis
    • Removal of the uterus (laparoscopic hysterectomy)
    • Removal of fibroids and islets of endometriosis in endometriosis (growths of the uterine lining)
    • Inguinal hernia surgery
    • Cutting the branches of the 10th cranial nerve (vagus nerve) to reduce gastric acid production in gastric and duodenal ulcers
    • Creation of an artificial intestinal outlet (anus praeter).

Laparoscopy

The course of the laparoscopy

General anesthesia is necessary for laparoscopy. So that the doctor has space and an overview of the abdomen, carbon dioxide is first filled into the abdomen as a gas through a small skin incision with a hollow needle. The laparoscope (instrument with light source and camera) and surgical instruments (e.g. suction devices or forceps) are inserted through further small incisions in the abdominal wall. The camera transmits the recordings to the monitor so that the surgical team can see what is happening in the abdominal cavity.

Before laparoscopy

In order to minimize complications, you should inform the doctor of any pre-existing medical conditions and previous surgeries before the laparoscopy.

After the laparoscopy

You are often allowed to leave the hospital or practice shortly after a laparoscopy. On the day of the operation, it is better not to drive yourself. Use public transport. Better yet, have someone pick you up or take a taxi.

It is generally recommended that you remain under observation for a few hours after the laparoscopy. During this and afterward, you should rest, lie in bed, and, if possible, sleep. A mild pain reliever, such as an agent with the active ingredient ibuprofen, can help against pressure pain in the abdomen. As a rule, the attending physician will give you a recommendation or even give you the medication.

Side Effects Of Laparoscopy

The side effects of laparoscopy can include:

    • Nausea, headache, exhaustion as a result of anesthesia
    • Tenderness and bruising on the abdomen
    • Pain in the shoulders and pelvis
    • Injuries to surrounding organs are very rare.

Coverage of the Laparoscopy

Not all reasons (indications) for laparoscopy are a health insurance benefit. If the doctor has a prescription (i.e. for every medically necessary procedure), the costs are usually covered.

Zinc to Protect Against Respiratory Infections

Sore throat, runny nose, cough, exhaustion, etc. – Colds are among the most common reasons for sick leave. During the current coronavirus pandemic, there is also fear of serious respiratory infections in COVID-19. An adequate supply of zinc can help prevent and alleviate respiratory diseases.

The immune system is a miracle of nature and protects us against innumerable harmful influences every day. To do this, the organism needs important vital substances to defend itself against viruses, bacteria, free radicals, and the like. An essential trace element that our immune system needs is zinc. However, once the stores are empty, the immune system can no longer perform its tasks properly. The result: You become more susceptible to infections and, above all, are more prone to respiratory infections.

Virus Diseases Particularly Affect People With Weak Immune Defenses

In the colder months of the year, virus infections such as colds and flu are high season. Accordingly, our immune system is also working at full speed. Newer strains of viruses, such as the Sars-CoV-2 coronavirus and now also its mutated variants, also put our immune system to a tough test. Because infection with this multi-organ virus, which mainly affects the respiratory tract, can have serious consequences, especially for people with weak immune defenses or chronic pre-existing diseases (such as cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, or diabetes) as well as for seniors and severe COVID 19 gradients entail.

Zinc Protects Against Virus Diseases

A sufficient supply of the vital trace element zinc can protect against virus diseases. How this works has been shown for various types of viruses. A sufficient supply of zinc prevents, for example, rhinoviruses – the typical pathogens of colds – from sticking to our nasal mucosa1. Cold viruses cannot penetrate our bodies and spread. Even with the currently rampant SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, zinc can prevent viruses from penetrating body cells and inhibit the virus from multiplying2. In the case of coronaviruses, zinc not only shows antivirus effects but can also slow down the excessive inflammatory reaction in COVID-19 and strengthens the airways. There is ample evidence that adequate zinc supplies are beneficial for the prevention and treatment of COVID-192. Current studies also show that an adequate zinc supply can protect against severe COVID-19 courses. The zinc levels of COVID-19 patients are significantly lower compared to healthy volunteers. In an Indian study, COVID-19 patients with a zinc deficiency had a more than the 5-fold increased risk of complications and showed an increased mortality rate3.

Zinc To Protect Against Respiratory Infections

Versatile Effects Of Zinc

The trace element zinc, which is necessary for humans, plays an important role in the defense against pathogens. A zinc deficiency affects the immune system, increases the susceptibility to infectious diseases, delays recovery, and leads to a worse course of infections. In the case of infections, a zinc deficit increases the symptoms, which can lead to excessive inflammation and additional tissue damage. In addition to other immune cells, zinc primarily affects the function of the large phagocytes4,5. The large phagocytes (so-called macrophages) belong to the white blood cells and play an essential role in the elimination of microorganisms such as bacteria etc.

A Polish study indicates that zinc has anti-oxidative as well as anti-inflammatory effects. In addition to standard therapy, the consumption of zinc is said to be able to reduce the mortality rate from pneumonia.

Zinc Reduces The Duration Of The Cold

Around two to four times a year, adults in this country are affected by colds. Usually, the disease will be over in about a week. Fresh air, rest, sufficient humidity in the rooms, and hydration in the form of mineral water and tea as well as enough sleep generally promote recovery. This also applies to a diet rich in vital substances. Hot spices such as ginger, chili, curry, horseradish, and mustard not only heat things up, they also have an antimicrobial effect. Freshly cooked chicken soup is also helpful.

Zinc is currently recommended again and again for flu-like infections. Because by adding zinc you can shorten the duration of colds by around 33 percent. Patients with a cold should use zinc within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms8.

Strengthen The Immune System With The Right Substances

There are many remedies for colds. Since most colds are caused by viruses, but antibiotics only work against bacteria, they are usually not suitable. With the so-called CRP rapid test, the doctor can determine within a few minutes whether viruses or bacteria are responsible for the disease and accordingly initiate the right treatment and select the right drug. A few drops of blood and a few minutes waiting time are sufficient for the rapid test. The rapid test can prevent patients suffering from a virus disease from receiving antibiotics unnecessarily.

Zinc is the basic element for a healthy immune system, as it has a positive effect on the body’s own production of important defense cells (T cells). Since it is an essential trace element, the body cannot produce zinc itself and is dependent on it to be supplied through food. This is certainly one reason why zinc deficiency is relatively widespread. The results of the National Consumption Study II show that up to 44 percent of adults in Germany are undersupplied with zinc 10.

 

Shock In The Medical Sense

Definition

Shock in the medical sense is an emergency situation. With this information, you can recognize a shock and provide useful first aid. Colloquially, a shock scares us – or we are paralyzed, shocked for a short time. For medical professionals, however, shock is a serious life-threatening clinical picture. Read more about the causes, symptoms, and first aid here.

What is a Shock?

A shock in the medical sense is a condition in which the oxygen supply to the organs is no longer ensured due to a lack of blood in the bloodstream. This deficiency can have very different causes. The most common are internal and external bleeding (mostly due to injuries) as well as disorders of the fluid balance, which continue to reduce the blood volume. Long-term diarrhea, massive vomiting, or profuse sweating can also cause shock. Doctors refer to these causes as a volume deficiency shock.

If enough blood is no longer pumped into the body in the event of heart failure, those affected also fall into a state of shock. Medics say they get shocked. The technical term for this form of shock is cardiogenic shock.

Symptoms

In order to supply the body with vital oxygen, the heart rate rises to more than 100 beats per minute at the beginning of the shock. Typically, the blood pressure drops sharply (first value below 90 mmHg).

Shock states can also be recognized externally: The skin is pale and usually feels cool and moist. People in shock are often very thirsty. The longer a shock lasts, the shallower the breathing becomes. The blood pressure continues to drop, the pulse is racing and can hardly be felt. Eventually, those affected lose consciousness.

Shock In The Medical Sense

Depending on the cause of the shock, there are other symptoms:

    • in anaphylactic shock: allergic symptoms such as rashes, itching, facial swelling, and shortness of breath
    • in cardiogenic shock: chest tightness and difficulty breathing
    • with septic shock: fever or reduced body temperature below 36 degrees Celsius and bleeding in the skin, the skin is sometimes red and overheated.

Causes

Allergy sufferers know anaphylactic shock as the most severe allergic reaction. Many allergy sufferers carry an emergency kit with them in order to be able to take action against the life-threatening allergy-related shock condition.

In the case of blood poisoning (sepsis), septic shock can develop in the end-stage. This almost always leads to death.

In addition, there are even rarer forms of shock such as neurogenic shock (nerve-related), electric shock (as a result of an electrical accident), endocrine shock (hormone-related), hypoglycemic shock (insulin shock), and orthostatic shock (due to a disturbed vascular and circulatory regulation).

Examination

Recognize shock with the Rekap sample

Rescue workers often use their fingernails to test for shock. But every layperson can do that too. The so-called Rekap-Probe consists of briefly pressing the fingernail into the nail bed. The blood under the nail is squeezed out of the smallest blood vessels, the capillaries, and the skin turns white. If you let go of your fingernail, you pay attention to the time it takes for the skin under the nail to turn red again. If this so-called recapillarization (recap) lasts longer than a second, it can be seen as an indication of poor blood circulation. Of course, this is not a reliable diagnostic criterion, but it is still a guide.

Treatment

First aid: ensure shock positioning and call an emergency doctor

If a shock is suspected, the emergency services should be alerted immediately. Until the emergency vehicle arrives, first aid with so-called shock positioning is possible. The legs are positioned higher than the head, for example, the patient lies on their back and the legs are placed on a chair/stool. This is intended to increase the return of the blood to the heart and improve the supply of organs.

No shock position for B injuries

However, there are a number of shock states in which the shock positioning is not useful and even harms. Many rescue workers remember these cases with a donkey bridge. It reads: “B = shock position nee”. These include the following 6 Bs:

    • Pear: visible and invisible head and skull injuries, fluid leakage from nose and/or ears
    • Chest: pain in the heart and chest area
    • Abdomen: Injuries or pain in the abdomen
    • Legs: open broken legs with protruding bones or any suspicion of a broken leg
    • Pelvis: Injuries in the pelvic area
    • Hump: Injuries to the back and spine, especially with numbness or paralysis of the limbs or uncontrolled urination and stool.

Don’t panic about first aid

Most people very rarely get into situations where they have to respond to shock. Most often this happens in traffic and work accidents. No matter how severe the accident is: First get an overview, then secure the accident area and then alert the emergency services. After that, you can give first aid. This is the best way to help yourself and others to survive a state of shock in good health.