Doctors speak of hypotension or low blood pressure when the blood pressure falls below a certain limit: the first value below 100 mmHg, the second value below 65 mmHg. Dizziness, paleness, and freezing are sometimes symptoms of low blood pressure. Much more often, however, it goes unnoticed – and that is usually not a problem.
Doctors speak of hypotension or low blood pressure when the blood pressure falls below a certain limit: the first value (systome) below 100 mmHg, the second value (diastole) below 65 mmHg.
In contrast to high blood pressure (hypertension), low blood pressure (hypotension) is not a disease, but rather has a positive effect on life expectancy. Many people have low blood pressure that does not cause discomfort. Other people complain of poor circulation, which often occurs when standing for long periods of time or suddenly changing position. As a rule, low blood pressure does not require treatment. However, if you have symptoms of low blood pressure, you should see a doctor. This applies in particular to pregnant women as well as children, adolescents, and senior citizens.
Typical symptoms of low blood pressure are general disorders such as:
- Dizziness and blackness in front of the eyes (especially in the morning and after changing position)
- Sensation of coldness in hands and feet
- Fatigue and lack of drive
- Lack of concentration
- Weather sensitivity
- Sleep disorders and increased need for sleep
- Palpitations, rapid pulse, and ringing in the ears
- Tendency to faint.
Above all, the dramatic-sounding consequences of low blood pressure such as palpitations, pulse irregularities, or a tendency to faint are rather rare. If so, these symptoms of hypotension tend to appear in susceptible individuals in stressful situations.
Shock And Low Blood Pressure
If the drop in blood pressure occurs suddenly and persists, with pronounced tiredness or loss of consciousness, please call an ambulance. These symptoms could indicate shock. A shock in the medical sense is a condition in which the oxygen supply to the organs is no longer ensured due to a lack of blood in the bloodstream. This deficiency can have very different causes. The most common are internal and external bleeding (mostly due to injuries) as well as disorders of the fluid balance, which continue to reduce the blood volume. Long-term diarrhea, massive vomiting, or profuse sweating can also cause shock. You can read more detailed information here: Shock
The causes of low blood pressure are often inexplicable from a medical point of view. However, there are a number of diseases or conditions that make low blood pressure more likely.
- Body size: Tall, slim people are often affected.
- Heredity: In the hereditary disposition, abnormal blood pressure regulation can be created.
- Heart diseases such as heart failure, heart valve defects, or heart attacks are plausible causes of low blood pressure.
- Vascular diseases such as aortic arch syndrome or venous weakness are also among the understandable causes of low blood pressure
Other reasons for low blood pressure are:
- Disorders of the nervous or endocrine system (especially thyroid and adrenal dysfunction)
- Infectious diseases such as bacterial or viral infections
- Heavy blood loss or internal bleeding, including oozing bleeding (permanent low blood loss, for example in gastric and duodenal ulcers)
- Lack of salt or fluid loss, for example through sweating, fever, vomiting, or diarrhea, and in poorly controlled diabetes through excessive urination.
- Side effects of certain drugs, for example, those used against high blood pressure, but also antidepressants or antipsychotics.
- excessive alcohol consumption
- heavy smoking.
In medical therapy for low blood pressure, your doctor will first clarify the cause of the hypotension. In many cases, low blood pressure is just a symptom of another disease. Then it is important to treat this disease. This can also mean, for example, to reset the medication for high blood pressure.
Drug Therapy For Low Blood Pressure
Your doctor may use a variety of medications for low blood pressure. So-called sympathomimetics such as etilefrine or oxilofrine are often prescribed. These drugs increase the pressure in arteries and veins. Another possibility is the administration of the vascular-strengthening ergot alkaloid dihydroergotamine. Such drug therapies remain the exception. Usually, it is enough to push the blood pressure up a little with home remedies.
Self-help: home remedies for low blood pressure
The focus of self-help with low blood pressure is to stimulate circulation and thus increase blood pressure. The following recommendations for self-help with hypotension will help. But please ask a doctor first whether these recommendations also make sense for you.
- Morning hot and cold alternating showers and brush massages stimulate the circulation.
- Coffee or other beverages containing caffeine temporarily increase blood pressure. A glass of sparkling wine, on the other hand, is not recommended. Even if alcohol initially increases blood pressure, the opposite effect occurs after a short time – and you are limp than before.
- Do gymnastics and sport regularly, walk instead of taking the elevator, better cycling than taking the train.
- Rock your feet every now and then. This stimulates the venous pump and increases blood pressure.
- Get enough sleep. Do not get up immediately after waking up, stretch your arms and legs. Slowly come to sit.
- If you have varicose veins, please consistently wear compression stockings. This prevents blood from sinking into the legs.
- Herbal medicines that stimulate the heart and circulation, such as camphor and hawthorn, are also helpful.
In many cases, especially in the elderly, low blood pressure is associated with some degree of dehydration. Make sure you drink enough. It should be at least around 1.5 liters per day. Water, fruit teas, and juice spritzers are particularly suitable because they are low in calories and therefore do not contribute to excess weight.