Epigastric Hernia

Doctors call an epigastric hernia a break in the upper abdominal wall between the navel and the lower end of the sternum. When fat and connective tissue penetrate from the abdominal cavity through the layers of the abdominal wall and a sack-like protuberance of the peritoneum forms a so-called hernial sac, this is a hernia. Epigastric means: relating to the upper abdomen (the epigastrium).


Epigastric hernias are comparatively rare. They only make up 5 percent of all hernias. Inguinal hernias (inguinal hernias) or umbilical hernias (umbilical hernias) are much more common.


In many cases, epigastric hernias go unnoticed because the fractures are either very weak or hardly any tissue from the abdominal cavity slides into the hernial sac.

When abdominal wall fractures cause discomfort, the fat and connective tissue of the large network, the so-called greater omentum, has often shifted. In rare cases, parts of the small intestine also enter the chest through an epigastric hernia. In these cases, severe upper abdominal discomfort usually occurs, which increases with pressure.

Epigastric Hernia

This pressure is usually built up from the inside, for example by carrying heavy loads. Persistent sneezing (for example with allergies), persistent coughing (for example with chronic lung diseases such as COPD) or strong pressure during bowel movements (especially with constipation) increase the pressure in the upper abdomen.

The bulging hernial sac is usually visible and palpable from the outside. In rare cases, acute epigastric hernias are accompanied by nausea, fever, or vomiting.


Complications arise when the tissue in the hernial sac of an epigastric hernia becomes twisted and disconnected from the blood supply. This is a medical emergency that requires immediate surgical treatment. If the trapped tissue dies, there is a risk of life-threatening infections of the chest or abdominal cavities such as peritonitis or pneumonia.


Small abdominal wall hernias without symptoms do not necessarily have to be operated on. A symptomatic epigastric hernia is usually treated surgically (fracture closure), as the risk of abdominal organs slipping into the chest increases over time. If the abdominal wall needs stabilization, a plastic mesh can be implanted, for example, which reliably closes the abdominal wall hernia.

What are The Symptoms Of Lungs Cancer, Treatment & Prognosis

Lung cancer is a malignant neoplasm in the respiratory system (lungs and bronchi). In addition to breast cancer, colon cancer and prostate cancer, it is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Unfortunately, the number of illnesses continues to increase, especially among women.

Short version:

    • Smoking causes 85% of lung cancers.
    • Lung cancer is caused by a change in the genetic material due to chronic damage.
    • Lung carcinomas can be divided into two groups.
    • Because symptoms are unrecognized or misinterpreted, lung cancer is often discovered by accident during examinations.
    • The treatment of a lung tumor depends on the type of cancer.

In Austria, around 2,500 men and almost 1,200 women suffer from bronchial carcinoma each year. Thus lung cancer is second only to prostate cancer in males and third in women after breast and colon cancer. Most cases are detected between the 55th and the 65th year of life. However, patients can be significantly younger.

The main risk factor for the development of lung cancer is cigarette smoking: Around 85% of all cases can be attributed to tobacco consumption. Hereditary predispositions or contact with other harmful substances (such as arsenic, radon or asbestos), on the other hand, play a subordinate role. 3-5% of the diseases are caused by passive smoking.

From surgery to Targeted Therapy: Depending on the type and stage, lung cancer is treated differently.

Anyone smoking a pack of cigarettes every day for over 20 years increases their lung cancer risk 30 to 40 times. By contrast, a familial accumulation only leads to a doubling or tripling of the risk.


How does lung cancer develop?

In the cells of the mucous membranes of the bronchi and in the alveoli, there is a change in the genetic material due to prolonged chronic damage (for example, chronic inflammation from cigarette smoke). After a long time, this change means that the normal control mechanisms for the growth and death of cells are no longer effective and a malignant tumor develops. At an early stage of development, this process can sometimes be reversed, such as when the damaging effects are stopped.

Basically, two groups of lung cancer are differentiated:

    1. Non-small cell lung carcinoma

The non-small cell type accounts for around three quarters of cancers of the lung. It is roughly subdivided into:

    • squamous cell carcinoma
    • the adenocarcinoma
    • the large cell carcinoma
    1. Small cell lung carcinoma

Small cell lung cancer (about 20% of the disease) spreads rapidly through the bloodstream and lymphatics, but is better for chemotherapy.

This distinction is important from a medical point of view, because the therapy is targeted accordingly.

Which symptoms occur?

In those cases of lung cancer that are discovered at an early stage, these are generally incidental findings: pulmonary x-raying is actually done for quite different reasons, e.g. in case of release for surgical procedures or severe infections suggesting pneumonia.

The most significant problem is that the disease remains asymptomatic for a long time. Often, the typical symptoms, such as coughing, shortness of breath, fatigue or back pain, misinterpreted or ignored. Since the majority of sufferers are smokers with chronic bronchitis and often have cardiovascular problems, the symptoms are attributed to them.

A doctor’s visit is therefore often delayed for a long time. Only the appearance of blood in the sputum or severe weight loss are alarming. More than two-thirds of all cases of lung cancer are therefore diagnosed at a local or systemic (i.e., distant metastasis) stage.

Unfortunately, previous large-scale studies on the possibility of early diagnosis have not shown sufficiently satisfactory results to be meaningful to broad sections of the population. A so-called spiral computed tomography (spiral CT) with low radiation dose is therefore recommended as a preventive check only certain risk groups: chronic smokers over 50 years, especially if at the same time a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is present; in addition, in the case of lung cancer in the family or a workplace that is burdened by inhaled carcinogens (carcinogenic substances). However, the last two factors only seem relevant if the person smokes himself at the same time.


How does the doctor make a diagnosis?

If lung cancer is suspected, the patient is referred to a specialized department where a complete examination is made as soon as possible. Among other things, the stage of the disease, the type of tumor and the spread in the body is examined.

For this purpose, different examination methods such as computed tomography, ultrasound, biopsy or a PET scan are performed.

Which treatment methods are available?

The choice of treatment for lung cancer depends largely on the type of cancer and the stage of the cancer.

Treatment options range from surgery to radiation and chemotherapy, to molecular biology therapy.

What is the prognosis for lung cancer?

In contrast to other types of cancer, in the case of bronchial carcinoma, there are no meaningful early detection measures or long-term successful treatment methods. Lung cancer is the only cancer in which the rate of new disease is nearly identical to that of deaths.

Taking all the cases together, current treatment methods achieve a 5-year survival rate of only 15%. However, when early-stage non-small cell lung cancer is detected, around 75 out of every 100 people treated surgically are still alive five years later.

At the same time, lung cancer is virtually the only cancer that has a prevalent and avoidable risk factor. Prevention through smoking cessation is therefore at the forefront.

Especially in the case of lung cancer, it must be emphasized how important it is to participate in the clinical trials offered, as it provides access to new drugs that are not yet on the market, and one can expect further improvements. Moreover, it is only possible to further advance the progress in the treatment of this problematic disease.

As regards therapy, great progress has been made in all areas in recent years. It has become much better in terms of effectiveness and tolerability. This leads to an improvement in quality of life, lifespan and a reduction in side effects.

What can i do on my own?

If you are a smoker, stop as soon as possible!

There are studies showing that certain drugs used to treat lung cancer are less effective when smoked during treatment. The effect of radiation therapy is also disturbed, and surgery increases the rate of complications.

In addition, it is known that patients who have undergone successful surgery have a higher risk of developing another lung cancer if they continue to consume nicotine than those who have quit smoking.

In addition, of course, all health care measures are also useful in the case of this disease: such as vitamin and fiber rich diet with restriction of sugar and fat content and sufficient exercise in the fresh air.

Sore Throat No Fever No Cough Swollen Glands

Sore Throat No Fever No Cough Swollen Glands

Sore Throat No Fever No Cough Swollen Glands

Strep throat is a bacterial infection of the throat that is common and is characterized in part by bad sore throat without accompanying cold symptoms. It is more likely if you also have enlarged tonsils and swollen glands in your neck.
You might also have other symptoms, such as a sore throat, cough or fever.. than 3 or 4 days; you have swollen glands and no other signs of illness or infection .
If you have a sore throat, swollen glands, with no fever, know that some. Any of these have other symptoms likeheadache, fatigue, coughing, and body aches.
What can cause you to have a sore throat, swollen glands, but no fever?. These can lead to symptoms like fatigue, body aches, headaches and coughing.

Runny Nose Sore Throat Cough

Runny Nose Sore Throat Cough

Runny Nose Sore Throat Cough

Symptoms may include a runny or stuffy nose, itchy or sore throat, cough, congestion, body aches, headache, a low-grade fever and mild fatigue. With the flu, symptoms come on more suddenly– and you'll likely feel worse.
Common cold symptoms may include: Stuffy, runny nose. Scratchy, tickly throat. Sneezing. Watering eyes. Low-grade fever. Sore throat. Mild hacking cough.
This results in nasal congestion, stuffy, or runny nose.. Other symptoms may include sore throat, sneezing, coughing, mild headache, mild body aches and .
Runny nose and/or sneezing; Coughing; Sore throat; Head and body aches; Low fever (less. Acute symptoms last 3-4 days, and cough may linger for 3 weeks.
The symptoms of flu usually start suddenly with a high fever, headache, all-over muscle aches, runny nose, sore throat and cough, and people often feel so .
A blocked or runny nose; A sore throat; Sneezing; Coughing; Watery eyes; A headache; More. Similar to a cold, a sore throat can be the first sign of a flu.
Yes, it's that time of year again. While symptoms of cold and flu are well known, making the distinction can be difficult. Learn the differences today!

Dry Cough And Sore Throat That Won't Go Away

Dry Cough And Sore Throat That Won’t Go Away

Dry Cough And Sore Throat That Won't Go Away

How to get rid of a cough that won't go away and when to see your doctor.. you get other symptoms like shortness of breath, chest pain or coughing up blood.. a cough can be caused by irritation of the airways anywhere from your throat to .
I had a cold last month and seemed to be getting better, but the cough never went away. Last week, I had a bad sore throat (which everyone .
Question. Two months ago I had a small cold. It started with a sore throat and runny nose, then a small cough that developed into a deep, dry, barking cough.
Cold usually lasts from a couple of days to a week, but coughing may. Mononucleosis: Your sore throat that won't go away could be due to mononucleosis.. fever, chills, trouble swallowing, sore throat, ear pain, loss of voice, and bad breath.
Read about some of the main causes or short- and long-term coughs, when to see your GP, and what treatments are available.. A cough will usually go away within 3 weeks on its own.. These won't get rid of the cough.. you've had a cough for more than 3 weeks (persistent cough); your cough is very bad or quickly gets .
Find out what could possibly be causing your annoyingly persistent cough when you don't feel. Reasons why your cough just won't go away — plus, what you can do about it. So when it does, it irritates the throat and causes you to develop a terrible cough, with or without phlegm.. When to Worry About Abdominal Pain.

Dry Cough And Sore Throat On One Side

Dry Cough And Sore Throat On One Side

Dry Cough And Sore Throat On One Side

Though it might feel odd if throat is sore just on one side, there're several reasons. including mild cough, hoarseness, headache, feeling sick, exhaustion, and. a sore throat so bad that it blocks your ability to swallow or eat, it's time to go in.
They are similar to the tonsils swollen glands in the neck; Check out all.and water or Chlorhexidine Gluconate which also comes in the form. attention to throat .
BabyStart Male Fertility Tests · One Step Male Fetility Tests. . A sore throat is commonly spread by: sharing drinks, kissing, coughing, nose blowing, and sneezing. Tonsillitis is an infection of the lumpy tissue (tonsils) either side of the throat towards the back of the tongue. You have a persistent fever over 38.3 °C (101°F).
At Buoy, we build tools that help you know what's wrong right now and how to get. . Top Symptoms: sore throat, congestion, cough with dry or watery sputum,. . on either side of the throat can be a sign of tonsillitis, an infection of the tonsils.
Which one do you have, and what should you do about it?. Sore throat is a common symptom that ranges in severity from just a sense of scratchiness to severe pain.. that hurt the lining of the throat, such as a tortilla chip; Dry air; Heartburn (gastric reflux). . Use tissues when you cough and dispose of them carefully.

Dry Cough And Sore Throat No Fever

Dry Cough And Sore Throat No Fever

Dry Cough And Sore Throat No Fever

A dry cough is a cough where no phlegm or mucus is produced.. allergic rhinitis (hay fever) due to inhaling substances you are allergic to, such as pollen,. and adults) may also help with a dry cough associated with a cold and sore throat.
Cold symptoms may not show up until one to three days after you've been exposed to. a fever greater than 100°F, chills and sweats, headache, dry cough and aching. Fever up to 100°F; Runny or stuffy nose; Sore throat; Cough; Sneezing .
Runny nose; Throat pain; Nasal congestion; Sneezing; Fever; Cough. Learn more about. This reflux may cause a persistent cough. Chronic irritation. have an infection. Not all hoarseness is due to a primary inflammation of the vocal cords.
A dry cough produces little or no mucus and is caused by irritation or inflammation. In most of these situations, dry coughs occur because the back of your throat (or. . Also feel tired or lethargic; Experience fever; Notice unexplained weight loss.. . Yes, back pain can be related to repeated bouts of coughing (resulting from .
The two types of cough —wet cough and dry cough— are associated with. A dry cough or "hack" does not produce noticeable mucus.. Whooping Cough/ Pertussis: A dry, intermittent cough accompanied by a mild fever with a sore throat that .
Is it a Cold, Hay Fever, Sinusitis or the Flu? Name. No fever. • No aches and pains. • Still have an appetite. • Sore throat. • Runny. Dry cough & lack of appetite.

Dry Cough And Sore Throat For 2 Weeks

Dry Cough And Sore Throat For 2 Weeks

Dry Cough And Sore Throat For 2 Weeks

Jan. 14, 2013 — Just how long should that pesky cough last? The answer, according to most doctors, is close to 18 days. Yet many people with a cough get antsy .
Coughs associated with a cold or the flu tend to last a week or 2, most. and adults) may also help with a dry cough associated with a cold and sore throat.
It can be normal for dry cough symptoms to last a week or two. At the most. Top Symptoms: sore throat, fever, runny nose, dry cough, hoarse voice. Urgency: .
If your child's cough lasts more than three weeks or if they are getting a cough. get a cough and wheeze for up to two weeks when they get a viral infection such as a cold.. sinuses and throat causing sneezing, runny nose, itchy nose, itchy eyes and a tickly cough.. Paracetamol or ibuprofen will relieve pain or fever.
Coughs lasting under three weeks are most commonly down to viral. Likewise, a cough can be caused by irritation of the airways anywhere from your throat to the. have two symptoms out of cough, shortness of breath, tiredness, chest pain, .

Dry Cough And Sore Throat Cure

Dry Cough And Sore Throat Cure

Dry Cough And Sore Throat Cure

Get rid of your persistent and dry coughs with these effective cough remedies and. Also a popular remedy for sore throats, salt water can ease the discomfort .
Causes. Dry cough may be caused due to a number of reasons, some of the common ones being –. A sore throat; Inhaling an irritant like dust or smoke; Asthma .
It can also be triggered by atmospheric pollutants (such as cigarette smoke) irritating your throat. In most of these situations, dry coughs occur because the back .
Some of the symptoms of a cough are itchy throat, chest pain, and congestion. Instead of using. Drink it daily to get relief from a dry cough. Another option is to .
Lozenges work by adding moisture to your throat, which can help ease dryness, scratchiness and the urge to cough. If you also have a sore throat, consider .
You can get rid of a sore throat quickly with home remedies and certain foods.. It's common to have a dry cough and a sore throat at the same time, and it's .
It is that time of the year when dry air hits, colds, and flu become common and. capable of curing numerous ailments among which a cough and sore throat top the list.. For many years, honey has been used to cure a sore throat and tonsils.