Congenital Heart Disease – Treatment, Symptoms, and Causes

Congenital heart disease is a heart defect, of innate origin. Basically, this pathology concerns the septa of the heart, affects the artery, which supplies venous blood to the lungs or one of the main vessels of the arterial system – the aorta, and also There is an increase in the ballot channel (OAP). In congenital heart disease, the blood movement in the large blood circulation (BPC) and small (ICC) is disturbed.

Heart defects are a term that combines certain heart diseases whose main benefit is a change in the anatomical structure of the heart valve device or its largest vessels and the growth of the partitions between the atria or ventricles.

Causes of congenital heart disease

The main causes of congenital heart disease are diseases from the chromosomes – it is almost 5%; Mutation of the gene (2-3%); various factors such as alcoholism and drug addiction of parents; Infectious diseases in the first trimester of pregnancy (rubella, hepatitis), medications (1-2%) and hereditary predisposition (90%).

With various distortions of chromosomes, their mutations appear in a quantitative and structural form. When aberrations of large or medium-sized chromosomes occur, this generally leads to a lethal outcome. But if there are biases in life compatibility then there are several types of congenital diseases. When a third chromosome appears in the set of chromosomes, defects arise between the valves of the valves of the atrial and ventricular septa or a combination of these.

Congenital heart disease with changes in the sex chromosomes is much rarer than in trisomy autosomes.

Mutations of a gene not only lead to congenital heart disease, but also to abnormalities of other organs. Developmental disorders of the CVS (cardiovascular system) are associated with the syndrome of an autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive syndrome. These syndromes are characterized by a pattern of damage to the system in a mild or severe severity.

The development of congenital heart disease can contribute to various environmental factors that damage the cardiovascular system. Among them, X-ray radiation could be identified that a woman could receive during the first half of pregnancy; Radiation by ionized particles; some types of medicines; Infectious diseases and viral infections; Alcohol, drugs, etc. Therefore, heart disease formed under the influence of these factors has received the name of embryopathy.

congenital-heart-disease-symptoms

Under the influence of alcohol, most commonly formed VSD (defect of the interventricular septum), OAP (open arterial duct), pathology of the interatrial septum. For example, anticonvulsants lead to the development of pulmonary artery stenosis and aorta, aortic coarctation, OAP.

Ethyl alcohol is the first of the toxic substances, contributing to congenital heart disease. A child born under the influence of alcohol has an embryophytes alcohol syndrome. Alcoholic mothers suffer from almost 40% of children with congenital heart disease. Alcohol is particularly dangerous in the first trimester of pregnancy – this is one of the most critical stages of fetal development.

Very dangerous for the future of the child is the fact that the pregnant woman suffered from rubella. This disease causes a number of pathologies. And the innate pathology of the heart is no exception. The incidence of congenital heart disease after rubella is between 1 and 2.4%. Among the heart diseases are the most common in practice: OAA, AVK, Fallot tetralogy, DMZHP, stenosis of the pulmonary artery.

The data from the experiments show that almost all congenital heart defects are basically of genetic origin, which is consistent with multifactorial inheritance. Of course, there is heterozygosity of a genetic nature and some forms of UPU are associated with mutations of a gene.

In addition to the aetiological factors that cause congenital heart disease, there is also a risk group in which women fall into the age group; Have violations of the endocrine system; with toxicoses of the first three months of pregnancy; who have stillborn babies in the history, as well as already existing children with congenital heart defects.

Congenital symptoms of heart disease

The clinical picture of congenital heart disease is characterized by features of the structure of the defect, the recovery process and the complications resulting from a variety of etiologies. The symptoms of congenital heart disease include shortness of breath, which occurs in the context of low physical exertion, increased heart rate, periodic weakness, paleness or cyanosis of the face, pain in the heart, swelling, and fainting.

Congenital heart defects can occur at regular intervals, so there are three major phases.

In the primary, adaptive phase, the patient’s body attempts to adapt to circulatory system disorders caused by a developmental defect. As a result, the symptoms of manifestation of the disease are usually not very pronounced. But during a severe hemodynamic injury, cardiac decompensation quickly develops. If patients with congenital heart disease do not die during the first phase of the disease, there will be improvements in their health and development in about 2-3 years.

In the second phase the relative compensation and the improvement of the general condition are noticed. And for the second inevitably comes the third, when all the adaptive abilities of the organism eventually develop a dystrophic and degenerative nature of the changes in the heart muscle and in various organs. Basically, the terminal phase leads to the death of the patient.

The most pronounced symptoms of congenital heart disease include cardiac arrhythmia, cyanosis, and heart failure.

Noise in the heart of a systolic character and varying intensity is observed in almost all types of vices. But sometimes they can be absolutely absent or manifest as transience. As a rule, the best audibility is located in the left upper part of the sternum or near the pulmonary artery. Even a slight increase in the shape of the heart makes it possible to hear heart noises.

During the stenosis of the pulmonary artery and TMS (transposition of the main vessels), the cyanosis manifests itself sharply. And with other malformations, it may be missing or small. Cyanosis sometimes has a lasting character or occurs when weeping, crying, so with a periodicity. This symptom may be accompanied by a change in the end phalanges of the fingers and nails. Sometimes such a symptom manifests itself in the pallor of a patient with congenital heart disease.

In some types of vice, the dullness of the heart may change. And its increase will depend on the localization of changes in the heart. To make an accurate diagnosis to determine the shape of the heart, use an X-ray image using both anti-ography and kymography.

In heart failure, a spasm of the peripheral vessels can develop, which is characterized by blanching, cooling of the limbs and the tip of the nose. Spasm manifests as the adaptation of the patient’s body to heart failure.

 

congenital-heart-disease-symptoms

Congenital heart disease in newborns

Infants have a pretty big heart that has significant backup capabilities. Congenital heart disease is usually formed in 2-8 weeks of pregnancy. The cause of his appearance in the child is various diseases of the mother, contagious and viral; the work of the future mother in harmful production and of course a hereditary factor.

About 1% of newborns suffer from cardiovascular disease. Now it is not difficult to diagnose congenital heart defects early. So it helps to save the lives of many children through medical and surgical treatment.

Congenital heart disease is most commonly diagnosed in male children. And for various deficiencies, there is a certain sexual predisposition. For example, OAA and VSD predominate in women and aortic stenosis, congenital aneurysm, aortic coarctation, Fallot tetralogy, and TMA – in males.

One of the most common changes in the heart of children is the non-opening of the septum – this hole is abnormal. Basically, it is the VSW that is located between the upper chambers of the heart. Throughout the baby’s first year of life, some minor defects in the dividing walls may spontaneously shut down and not interfere with the child’s further development. Well, for major pathologies, surgery is indicated.

The fetal circulatory system prior to birth is a circulation that bypasses the lungs, meaning that blood does not flow there but circulates through the arterial duct. If a child is born, this gait usually closes within a few weeks. But if this does not happen, the child is put by the OAU. This creates some stress on the heart.

The cause of severe forms of cyanosis in children is the transposition of two large arteries when the pulmonary artery connects to the left ventricle and the aorta to the right ventricle. This is considered pathology. Without surgical intervention, newborns die during their first days of life. In addition, children with severe congenital heart disease rarely have a heart attack.

Characteristic signs of congenital heart disease in children are low weight, rapid fatigue, and paleness of the skin.

Congenital heart disease

Congenital heart defects can sometimes have a different clinical picture. Therefore, the treatment and treatment methods largely depend on the severity and complexity of the clinical manifestations of the disease. Basically, the picture of his life is absolutely normal, as in healthy people, when the patient is completely compensated for the blemish. As a rule, such patients do not need consultations with doctors. You can be given recommendations whose purpose is to keep the defect in a compensatory state.

First, a patient suffering from congenital heart disease should be limited to hard physical labor. This work, which adversely affects the well-being of the patient, is advisable to switch to another type of activity.

A person with a history of congenital heart disease should refuse to participate in complex sports and participate in competitions. To reduce the strain on the heart, the patient should sleep for about eight hours.

The right diet should accompany patients with congenital heart disease. Foods should be taken three times a day to ensure that plenty of food does not stress the cardiovascular system. All foods should not contain salt, and if heart failure occurs, the salt should not exceed five grams. It should be remembered that only cooked foods should be eaten as they are better for digestion and significantly reduce the burden on all digestive organs. Basically, you should not smoke and drink alcoholic beverages in order not to provoke a cardiovascular system.

One of the methods of treating congenital heart disease is medication when it is necessary to regulate the contractile function of the heart, regulate the water-salt metabolism and remove excess fluid from the body, as well as combat the altered rhythms in the heart To improve metabolic processes in the myocardium.

The treatment of congenital heart disease sometimes changes due to the specificity and severity of the defect. The age and health of the patient are also taken into account. For example, children with small forms of heart disease sometimes do not need treatment. And in some cases, surgical procedures must be performed as early as infancy.

Almost 25% of children with congenital heart disease urgently require early surgery. To determine the location of the defect and its severity, children are put into the heart with a catheter in their first days of life.

The most important surgical method for the treatment of congenital heart disease is the method of deep hypertension, in which a strong cold is used. This type of surgery is performed by babies with a heart in size with a walnut. Applying this method to heart surgery allows the surgeon to perform a complex operation to restore the heart as a result of its complete relaxation.

At the moment, other radical methods of treating congenital heart disease are widespread. Among them, the commissurotomy can be distinguished, in which the dissection of obstructed valves and prostheses is used when the altered mitral or tricuspid atrioventricular valve is removed and then the valve prosthesis is sutured. After such surgical procedures, especially mitral commissurotomy, the prognosis of the surgical treatment is positive.

Basically, patients return to their normal lifestyle after surgery, they are able to work. Children are not limited to physical abilities. However, anyone who has undergone heart surgery should continue to be monitored by the attending physician. A vise that has a rheumatic etiology requires repeated prevention.

Finding the Perfect Point for that Non HDL Cholesterol Goal

People have been setting up their personal non-HDL cholesterol goal to achieve, and they are right to do so because it is good for them. Setting up your own non HDL cholesterol goal can be a good thing for you as well because of several reasons. If you are curious about the why and how setting up a low non HDL cholesterol level is good, then do proceed with this article.

What is non HDL cholesterol goal actually is?

Let us make it simple. We have already explored the definition and the reason behind the existence of HDL cholesterol in the article from before, so it is only right for us to explore its malicious cousin (or sibling. I do not know in what type of relationship these two cholesterols are in) to give it the attention that it needs.

Non HDL cholesterol, or more affectionately called the LDL cholesterol (the thing has a name as well, you know. You might offend it by not saying it outright) by scientists and commoners alike, is the devil on our other shoulder. It is the bad one from the two cholesterol, and having them inside your body is not recommended. Because nobody likes having anything bad within their body, many people have set up the goal for non HDL cholesterol. The goal is pretty short in explanation, actually. Your LDL cholesterol cannot exceed a certain threshold (or a goal), and if it did, you will fail. The premise is pretty easy to understand, right?

While the premise is easy to understand, the fundamentals are a bit unknown

What I mean by fundamentals is the basic knowledge of what is the perfect point for LDL cholesterol. How can we know that a certain level of LDL cholesterol is good? Is it true that there is an undeniable LDL cholesterol level threshold that will apply to every person in this world?

There are researches, but the researchers have not pulled out the best outcome

The treatment goal for non HDL cholesterol value is a bit vague, to be honest. Research indicates that having a non-HDL cholesterol level of 77 is your safest bet. If you did not cross that, you will be safe from heart attacks. Your heart will work better as well and your cardiovascular activity will not get ruined by it.

But there is another research that comes up saying that 84 is a threshold that you definitely cannot exceed. If it’s lower than 84, your body will still be good and it will not have problems. Coronary plaque build-up (the thing that makes your heart goes into arrest) will be lessened and you will be all-around healthy.

 

coronary-plaque

 

BUT (I will not be tired with ‘buts’ in this article so be prepared) another research says that if you are someone with a frail heart, a nice spot of 80 is the perfect MAXIMUM amount of non HDL cholesterol if. BUT another says 70, so people with a frail heart can get in a bit of a pickle. I personally believed that you should not exceed 70 if your heart is weak, but that is just an opinion.

If your heart is strong and you have no heart problems since forever, then 100 is the safe word.

BUT…

Just kidding.

That’s all folks regarding non HDL cholesterol goal, I do hope this article can shed some light regarding your search on the topic.

What Is Right Heart Failure?

Sometimes we can recognize warning signs of our body in everyday things: the otherwise super-fitting elegant loafers have to be exchanged for extra-wide health shoes from the medical supply store? The responsible swollen feet can be a first symptom of right-sided heart failure, also called right heart failure. What happens to this form of heart failure in the body and how to recognize Right Heart Failure, read now.

Symptoms of Right Heart Failure

Simply put, in right heart failure, the right half of the heart is no longer working properly. This is often the result of advanced left heart failure. If the two forms come together, it is also called global heart failure. When it comes to the chronic form, the symptoms of heart failure can go unnoticed for a long time right. Common signs of right heart failure include:

    • Rapid weight gain and swollen ankles and feet indicate water retention in the tissues. If you press your finger on the thickened area, a dent remains that can last for several minutes.
    • Caution: A thrombosis (blood clot) can also cause swelling in the leg. In contrast to this disease, in case of right heart failure, however, both legs or feet are always swollen. A thrombosis must be treated immediately.
what-happens-with-heart-failure-on-the-right
What happens with heart failure on the right?

Right heart failure is a weak pumping of the right half of the heart, which is responsible for the transport of oxygen-poor blood to the lungs. Normally, the right half of the heart works like this:

    1. Low-oxygen blood from the upper and lower half of the body flows into the right atrium.
    2. From the right atrium, the blood enters the right ventricle.
    3. The spent blood flows from the right ventricle into the lungs, where it is enriched with oxygen. This is called “small blood circulation”.
What happens if the right half of the heart is weakened?

This is simply explained: In right heart failure, more blood flows out of the systemic circulation than the impaired, right ventricle can carry on to the lungs. There is a backlog of spent blood in front of the right atrium, which can reach into the legs or neck. Sufferers suffer from swollen legs and thickened veins. In addition, this can increase the pressure in the veins so much that the liquid components of the blood are pressed into the surrounding tissue. This causes water retention (edema) in the feet, abdomen or other parts of the body.

How to Avoid The Second Heart Attack?

About two out of three people survive a heart attack. For these patients, it is very important to avoid a second infarction because the chances of survival in a repeated infarction are significantly lower. Certain risk factors such as genetic predisposition, age or gender can not be changed – but there are a number of other factors that you can influence yourself to reduce the risk of a second heart attack.

Avoid second infarction: First step is cure

Overall, about one third of heart attack patients suffers another infarction. The prognosis of a heart attack depends firstly on how badly the heart was damaged, but also on the behavior and lifestyle of those affected. The first important step after a cardiac arrest has passed is a cure for many patients – a so-called follow-up treatment. This type of rehabilitation should be followed directly by the hospital stay and usually takes three weeks. Studies show that rehabilitation improves the prognosis after a heart attack. In the follow-up treatment, which can also be performed on an outpatient basis, not only the medical treatment is continued and the physical performance is rebuilt, the patient is also informed about risk factors and educated on how he needs to change his lifestyle. Since this is often associated with the task of decades of habits, this is particularly difficult for many heart attack patients.

Take medication regularly and stop smoking

The most important factors to avoid a second heart attack include regular use of prescribed medications and abstinence from smoking. Only a consistent therapy can prevent a second heart attack. However, studies show that patient adherence diminishes approximately one year after the infarction. Five years after the infarct, only a part of the therapy continues consistently.

A second major contributing factor to the onset of another heart attack is smoking.

risk-factors-for-a-heart-attack

Healthy lifestyle: heart sports, nutrition and relaxation

But even those who give up smoking and taking his medication regularly, should also pay attention to a healthy lifestyle. This includes :

    • regular exercise and sports,
    • a healthy, low-salt and low-fat diet and
    • the avoidance of stress.

Regular exercise and moderate exercise are healthy for the heart – even after a heart attack. A good start after rehabilitation is offered by so-called heart sports groups, where you can train with other people under medical supervision. But regular exercise in everyday life is important, such as walking, cycling or gardening. In addition, heart sports can also boost confidence in one’s own body, which can help to reduce existing fears.

Overweight, high blood lipid levels and diabetes are risk factors for a heart attack that can be positively influenced by a healthy diet. Recommended for heart attack patients the so-called Mediterranean diet: This contains little meat and (animal) fat, but plenty of fruit and vegetables, regularly fish and in unsaturated fatty acids, such as those contained in olive and rapeseed oil.

Avoiding stress is also essential for heart attack patients if they want to avoid another heart attack. Researchers have shown that chronic stress can clog the arteries. In addition, stress can increase blood pressure, which also increases the risk of another heart attack. Heart attack patients should therefore look at how they can reduce stress in everyday life. It can also be helpful to learn certain techniques in stress management, such as autogenic training, progressive muscle relaxation, yoga or meditation.

What is Heart Arrhythmia, Symptoms, Causes And Therapy

What is a heart arrhythmia?

Heart arrhythmia is a disorder characterized by an accelerated or severely slowed heartbeat. The change in heart rate is due to an increase or decrease in electrical activity in the heart muscle.

Expansion of the heart is controlled by electrical signals or impulses from the brain. An interruption in the transmission of these electrical pulses may result in the suspension of a heartbeat. The values ​​of a normal adult heartbeat are 60 to 100 beats per minute. If you have a heartbeat outside this area, talk to your doctor about it.

Arrhythmia is often a contraindication to sports.

heart-arrhythmia

When do you have to worry?

Benign arrhythmias manifest at the level of the atria (for example, atrial fibrillation) or the atrioventricular sinus. They do not lead to the death of the person. Malignant arrhythmias that can lead to death include tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation.

Causes of heart arrhythmia

Here are the main causes of irregular heartbeat and arrhythmias:

    • Coronary heart disease is a common cause of arrhythmia. It is a disorder in which the blood circulation in the coronary vessels is obstructed.
    • Stimulants such as smoking, alcohol abuse, drugs and caffeine.
    • Abnormal sodium or potassium levels in the blood.
    • Some stomach disorders, such as hiatus hernia or gastroesophageal reflux.
    • Stimulants in medicines for cough and cold.
    • They can occur during convalescence after heart surgery.
    • Hypertension or high blood pressure.
    • Thyroid dysfunction or hyperthyroidism are less common causes of arrhythmias.
    • Myocardial damage or fibrosis of the heart due to myocardial infarction.
    • Diabetes and insulin.

Symptoms of heart arrhythmia

The symptoms of an irregular heartbeat are very vague. Sometimes the patient does not feel it at all. Patients with serious arrhythmias may have few symptoms, while others with significant symptoms may present a less severe condition.

Symptoms include:

    1. Intermittent chest pain or angina, the most common symptom of an irregular heartbeat
    2. Fast and irregular frequency, strong tapping of the heart
    3. Fainting or syncope
    4. Difficult breathing, especially under stress
    5. Excessive sweating
    6. Fear and restlessness
    7. General malaise
    8. Dizziness or dizziness
    9. Fatigue

Asymptomatic arrhythmia

The asymptomatic arrhythmia is not always harmless and may cause blood clotting in the heart and / or a reduction in the amount of blood being pumped.

Heart Arrhythmia At Night

Nocturnal irregular heartbeat can have various causes. The most common are :

    • Diabetes
    • Hyperthyroidism (hyperthyroidism)
    • high blood pressure or hypertension
    • Other heart diseases
    • Some medicines
    • Smoke
    • Stressful situations
    • Some natural remedies

Arrhythmia after eating

When we eat, a large amount of blood is diverted to the digestive tract. The body immediately responds to this situation and tries to maintain normal blood pressure by increasing the heart rate and narrowing certain arteries. If this mechanism does not work, postprandial hypotension may occur (drop in blood pressure after eating). Older people may have arrhythmias after eating. People who may experience cardiac arrhythmias after meals include those with high arterial blood pressure or Parkinson’s disease.

Causes and symptoms of the disorder can vary from person to person, possibilities are:

    1. Some people suffer from tachycardia only in certain situations, for example, at night in bed, after eating sweet foods or foods with a high sodium content, etc.
    2. Inadequate water intake, which thickens the blood and thus forces the heart to work to pump the blood.
    3. Dysfunction of an endocrine gland.
    4. Problems of the digestive system.
    5. Excessive enjoyment of coffee and other stimulants.
    6. Disorders of the vagus nerve.
    7. Hiatus hernia (diaphragmatic hernia).
    8. Gastroesophageal reflux.
    9. Liver or kidney disease.
    10. People with a rapid resting heartbeat may have arrhythmias after eating.

symptoms-of-heart-arrhythmia

Atrial fibrillation (AF)

Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of arrhythmia. In this disease, the heart beats irregularly and too fast. AF can be chronic, persistent or paroxysmal. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurs occasionally and temporarily, and is short-lived, from a few seconds to a few days.

Ventricular arrhythmia

This is a heart disorder in which the irregular rhythm of the heart and heart beats come from the heart chambers. It can be divided into: ventricular tachycardia, ventricular bradycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Tachycardia means that the heart rate exceeds 100 beats per minute, while bradycardia is characterized by beats below 60 beats per minute. Ventricular fibrillation is a disease in which the heart beats quickly and irregularly. The result is a reduction of the pumped blood.

causes

    1. Drug side effects
    2. caffeine
    3. nicotine
    4. High sodium and potassium levels in the blood
    5. Necroses and fibroses of the heart muscle
    6. cardiomyopathy
    7. myocarditis
    8. Valvular heart disease
    9. Congenital heart disease

Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA)

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia refers to a change in heart rate that occurs during a natural breathing cycle. The vagus nerve is a cranial nerve that runs from the brain stem to the abdomen and plays an important role in the regulation of the heartbeat. It reduces the contraction force and the frequency of  the heart. During inhalation and exhalation, cells of the medulla oblongata send a signal from the parasympathetic nervous system via this cranial nerve to the heart. This causes a cyclic variation of the heart rate. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is a physiological variant and is not considered abnormal. In fact, it is the loss of this normal reflex that signals a heart problem.

RSA is common in children and adolescents and usually goes away with self-growth. However, a doctor should be consulted on:

    1. Very fast and irregular heartbeat,
    2. Very slow heartbeat,

Heart Arrhythmia in Children

What are the specific causes of heart arrhythmia in children?

    1. Congenital heart defect
    2. Side effect on medicines

Cardiac palpitations during pregnancy

What are the causes?

    1. Mental stress
    2. body changes
    3. Excessive caffeine consumption
    4. Physical stress
    5. anemia
    6. Lack of magnesium
    7. Side effects of drugs

Diagnostics and examination

Heart arrhythmia are diagnosed by listening to the stethoscope or by an electrocardiogram (ECG). For fetal arrhythmias, echocardiography is usually performed; in the 20th week of pregnancy usually a morphological ultrasound. If the gynecologist sees a congenital anomaly, he may request  chocardiography, as this examination is much more thorough.

Therapy of heart arrhythmia

In some arrhythmias, it does not require treatment, in other cases, rapid treatment must be used to prevent heart failure.

Possible treatments are:

Physical exercises

There are several physical exercises (physiokinesis therapy) that stimulate the stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system (the part of the nervous system that affects rest, digestion, energy recovery and recovery).

The techniques that affect the vagus nerve (vagal maneuvers) affect the parasympathetic nervous system and promote the health of the heart.

With regard to nutrition, stimulating foods, such as coffee and chocolate, are not recommended as they can affect the heart rate.

Treatment of the accelerated heartbeat

Cardioversion. If the tachycardia comes from the atria (for example, atrial fibrillation), the doctor can perform a cardioversion. It is an electrical shock that serves to restore the heart to its normal rhythm.

This procedure is usually performed in a supervised environment and does not cause pain. Emergency cardioversion (defibrillation) is also used in ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.

Ablation therapy. In this procedure, a catheter is inserted through the blood vessels to the heart. It is placed over the place where the arrhythmias arise. The electrodes on the catheter tip are heated by radiofrequency energy.

Another method involves cooling over the catheter to freeze the tissue that is not functioning properly. Both methods destroy (ablate) a small portion of the heart tissue and create an electrical block along the pathway that causes the arrhythmia.

Implantable devices

Pacemaker. A pacemaker or pacemaker is an implantable device that helps regulate a slow heartbeat (bradycardia). A small device is placed under the skin near the collarbone. An insulated wire leads from the device to the heart where it is anchored. If the pacemaker is recording too low a heart rate or heartbeat, electrical impulses are sent to stimulate the heart to a faster heartbeat or to continue the heartbeat. Most pacemakers have a detection device that turns off when the heart rate is above a certain threshold when the frequency becomes too slow again.

Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD).

The doctor may prescribe this device to a patient at high risk for malignant and potentially fatal arrhythmias: ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. An ICD is a system with a battery implanted near the left clavicle. One or two electrodes go from the ICD via veins to the heart.The ICD continuously controls the heart rhythm. If too slow a rhythm, it stimulates the rhythm like a pacemaker. In fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia, it sends low-energy pulses to restore normal heart rhythm.

Surgical treatment

In some cases, surgical intervention may be recommended for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias:

Maze procedure. The surgeon puts a series of incisions in the atria. These lesions heal in the form of fibrous scar tissue, which has an insulating effect. In this way, the electrical impulses are steered into correct paths, thereby enabling an efficient heartbeat. The surgeon can use an instrument that ices the tissue, a high-frequency probe, or a scalpel to create scars.

Coronary bypass surgery. In severe coronary artery disease and frequent ventricular tachycardia, the physician may recommend coronary artery bypass graft surgery. This can improve the perfusion of the heart and reduce the frequency of ventricular tachycardias. 

Medical therapy

Many medications are available to treat cardiac arrhythmias. Some of the prescribed medications are listed here.

antiarrhythmics

These medications are used to reduce the symptoms of tachycardia.

Medicines prescribed for this purpose are:

    1. Amiodarone (Cordarex)
    2. Dronedarone (Multaq)
    3. Flecainid (Tambocor)

calcium channel blockers

These medications prevent calcium from entering the heart cells and blood vessels. The result is that the blood vessels relax and the arterial blood pressure drops.

Calcium antagonists prescribed for cardiac arrhythmia include:

    1. Amlodipine (Norvasc)
    2. Diltiazem (dilemma)
    3. Nifedipine (Adalat)

Beta Blocker

These drugs block the effects of adrenaline, lowering blood pressure and cardiac output. The most commonly prescribed beta-blockers are:

  1. Metoprolol (Beloc)
  2. Nebivolol (Nebivolol Heumann)

Anticoagulants They are known as blood thinners and prevent the formation of blood clots. The use of these medications is important in preventing complications and risks of heart arrhythmia.

    1. warfarin
    2. aspirin

Natural Remedy For Arrhythmia

Herbal remedies for heart arrhythmia include hawthorn and linden, which reduce tachycardia and cardiac palsies.

What Is The Coronary Heart Disease And How Does It Arise

Definition: What is a coronary heart disease (CHD) and how does it arise? CHD is the most common heart disease of the entire world population. It is also referred to as ischemic heart disease. In Germany, approximately 6 million patients are affected. Scientists believe that the incidence of coronary heart disease will increase with increasing life expectancy.

CHD primarily affects people over the age of 50 and is one of the most frequently reported causes of death in all industrialized countries. It is a disease of the heart caused by occlusions and constrictions in the coronary arteries.

These arteries are among the blood vessels that supply the heart with energy-giving nutrients and oxygen-rich blood. Especially with physical stress, the blood transport through the body is reduced and there are typical symptoms of CHD.

How is the calcification of coronary arteries formed?

Calcification of coronary arteries is caused by deposition of arteriosclerotic plaques by :

    • cholesterol
    • saturated fatty acids
    • lime-like particles

In some cases, initial nutritional damage already exists due to :

    • high blood pressure
    • Diabetes mellitus

The human immune system does not recognize the plaques as endogenous. This is followed by inflammatory reactions and the plaques become increasingly unstable, since activated immune cells no longer fulfill their task and die in the same. Deposits begin to open by progressive increase. The contents enter the bloodstream and finally the coronary vessels, where it settles again.

Typical symptoms of CHD

Depending on the stage of development of CHD different symptoms occur. It is distinguished into three different forms of stages of coronary heart disease.

latent CHD

A latent coronary heart disease is characterized by mild to moderate constrictions of the coronary arteries. There is a coronary sclerosis.

Although this phase is asymptomatic, there is already a significant mismatch between oxygen supply and demand. Despite the absence of symptoms, it is possible to detect a reduced perfusion of the heart muscle. In diabetics often no typical symptoms are noticeable.

Stable CHD

At this stage, sufferers notice typical CHD symptoms that occur under certain conditions. In most cases, they return alone or can be treated with medication (stable angina pectoris).

Angina Pectoris is the leading symptom of coronary heart disease. Affected notice a feeling of tightness as well as pain directly behind the breastbone. Primarily, the symptoms occur in cold, but also exercise. Other factors, such as mental stress or high-fat meals, can trigger these symptoms as well.

The resulting pain often spreads to the left arm or to other body regions such as upper abdomen, jaw or neck.

Other typical symptoms of CHD are:

    • Shortness of breath (shortness of breath)
    • sweats
    • Arrhythmia

Occasionally affected people feel dread. As soon as the affected person comes to rest or stays warm again, these symptoms of angina pectoris return.

Typical symptoms of angina pectoris vary in their frequency, intensity and duration. They are closely related to the current progression of the CHD. In patients with renal insufficiency or diabetes mellitus, chest pain persists. This also applies to persons over 75 years and operated on. Here are breathlessness, dizziness, nausea and radiation of pain in the abdominal area as warning signs.

Unstable CHD and acute coronary syndrome

Similar symptoms of angina pectoris also occur here. However, they are significantly stronger and unpredictable (unstable angina pectoris). This expression can not always be adjusted to medication.

As a result, coronary heart disease leads to a reduced resilience of sufferers and causes a reduction in performance. Depending on the severity, this affects the quality of life. In individual cases, patients can no longer sufficiently fulfill everyday tasks.

At the same time, the clinical picture may continue to deteriorate and become a life-threatening stage of CHD. The so-called acute coronary syndrome is characterized by three manifestations :

    1. Unstable angina pectoris
    2. is characterized by a lack of elevations of the heart enzymes (creatine kinase MB, troponin) in the blood. ECG results show no changes that indicate a heart attack.
    3. Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI, acute myocardial infarction)
    4. shows no changes in the ECG, however, heart enzymes that point to possible heart disease and an infarction, detectable in the blood.
    5. ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, acute myocardial infarction)
    6. manifests itself by typical changes in the ECG and detectable cardiac enzyme levels in the blood

As a consequence of these features occur :

    • Heart failure due to a heart attack
    • Heart arrhythmia due to a myocardial scar or coronary circulatory disorders
    • Sudden cardiac death
Risk factors for the development of CHD

The training of CHD is favored by numerous risk factors. Women over the age of 55 and men over the age of 45 are at particular risk. The previous lifestyle plays a particularly important role here. Unhealthy, high-fat diet, lack of exercise and smoking increase the risk of diseases such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, lipid metabolism and glucose tolerance disorders. As a consequence of this, in turn, a CHD can arise.

Not to be ignored is the family disposition. Special caution is advised when cases of CHD to heart attack have already occurred in the family environment, if possible risk factors should be largely avoided and a special focus on a healthy, balanced lifestyle should be laid. 

what-is-coronary-heart-disease

The diagnosis of CHD

Due to the risk factors for coronary heart disease described above, the diagnosis begins with an intensive discussion. Besides the risks, complaints are also documented. In addition, an assessment of the physical capacity of the patient.

This is followed by a physical check focusing on the legs, lungs and heart. Possible signs of CHD include :

    • Cardiac malformations such as aortic valve stenosis
    • rattling breathing due to pulmonary congestion
    • heart failure

Weight, heart rate, blood pressure and vascular status are also determined in order to make a correct diagnosis. If the patient reports symptoms suggestive of possible angina pectoris, the physician also measures the heart rate.

Which laboratory values ​​are suitable for the diagnosis of CHD?

The following values ​​are recorded in case of suspected coronary heart disease during the initial examination :

    • blood count
    • Cholesterol levels (HDL, LDL)
    • electrolysis
    • total cholesterol
    • Urinary findings (because of possible albuminuria)
    • creatinine
    • Fasting blood sugar
    • triglycerides

What exactly does a further diagnosis of CHC include?

In individual cases further investigations follow, for example :

    • Stress echocardiogram
    • Computed tomography (CT)
    • Echocardiogram (ultrasound of the heart)
    • Ergometry (ECG during exercise and rest)
    • coronary angiography
    • scintigraphy

Basically, the choice of possible advanced diagnostic methods depends on the likelihood of coronary heart disease. This results from various factors such as gender, age, risks as well as symptoms.

The treatment of CHD

Therapeutic measures in diagnosed CHD are based primarily on two basic elements. On the one hand, medications can support the treatment. On the other hand, specific non-pharmacological measures, especially on the part of the patient, are necessary.

Drug treatment of CHD

The primary goals of a drug therapy of CHD are the alleviation of the symptoms and the positive influence on the further course of the disease. For this purpose different groups of active ingredients are available :

    • ACE inhibitors
    • Beta-blocker (beta-receptor blocker)
    • Cholesterol-lowering drugs (e.g., statins)
    • Platelet aggregation inhibitor (clopidogrel, acetylsalicylic acid)

Typical symptoms of angina pectoris can be alleviated with nitrates or calcium channel blockers (calcium antagonists). In addition, the flu vaccine is recommended for affected patients. In acute cases, bypass surgery may improve the CHD. Sometimes a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is necessary.

Treat CHD without medication

Secondary preventive measures aim to prevent further complications as well as alleviate the current symptoms of CHD. The focus is on a healthy lifestyle. The individual components are similar to the primary preventive approach, which prevents the development of coronary heart disease.

Can a CHD be prevented?

In order to prevent a possible development of CHD, primary preventive measures can be taken to improve general heart health. A healthy lifestyle, sufficient exercise and a balanced diet are the basic requirements for this.

Sports that have a positive effect on heart health include swimming, running or cycling. Ideally, stress should be avoided, which is not completely possible for most people, so stress should be adequately processed or broken down through yoga, relaxation exercises or autogenic training.

In case of overweight, a weight reduction should be targeted. In addition, smoking cessation is recommended, which can minimize or even prevent numerous health problems. In addition, persons over the age of 35 should take the health check at the family doctor every two years. Here, typical risks, such as Diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure or elevated cholesterol, to be diagnosed for CHD.

The Best Diet For Heart Healthy

More and more people today are suffering from cardiovascular disease such as high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis and heart problems of various kinds. The cost of treatment for patients with atherosclerotic diseases is increasing rapidly. Experts predict that they will triple by the year 2030. This raises the question: Who should pay for it and why are not these illnesses declining, despite today’s medical possibilities?

The cause of cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular diseases are typical diseases of civilization, which are now in the list of the most common causes of death in the first place. Actually, this development is completely incomprehensible, because it is well known that diseases such as hypertension and arteriosclerosis, which are causally responsible for the development of stroke and heart attack, are so-called affluent diseases. And this prosperity goes hand in hand with a widespread over- and malnutrition. Since it would be logical, already preventive, but at the latest in the treatment of existing diseases to set exactly at this point. At this point, we would like to inform you about how you can prevent arteriosclerotic diseases – ranging from increased blood pressure to stroke or heart attack – through targeted nutrition.

Does a modern lifestyle require modern food?

Nowadays time is passing us by. Everything is always faster and everything should be bigger, better and more functional. Unfortunately, this development does not stop at our food. Our food today no longer deserves this name, which describes a living means of life. The word food is certainly more appropriate, because it is now predominantly about products that are full, but especially sick. We need to come back to those healthy foods that provide our body with all the nutrients and vital nutrients to withstand the tremendous demands of today.

heart-healthy

The quality of our food

Most of the food consumed by us in the form of canned, bagged or other prepared meals consists largely of heavily processed raw materials of inferior quality. Through the processing process, nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats and proteins are denatured and vital nutrients such as vitamins, enzymes, phytonutrients, etc. are no longer present, or only in traces. Our body suffers a severe deficiency, which manifests itself in different diseases. Of course, the cardiovascular system also reacts to the nutrient and vital substance deficit with corresponding symptoms.

Excessive consumption of refined salt, refined sugar, white flour products and foods contaminated with a wide variety of preservatives, colorants, flavor enhancers, etc. also has negative effects on heart healthy.

Tips for the best diet for heart healthy

Of course, the following tips will not only help protect your heart and keep you healthy. Your entire organism will benefit:

    • Do not use finished products as far as possible.
    • Instead, buy seasonal Regon food such as fresh, organically grown fruits and vegetables.
    • If you eat animal products, pay attention to biological, animal welfare or buy products from grazing.
    • Use unprocessed stone or Ursalz salt and season your meals as often as possible with fresh herbs.
    • When using fats, always ensure first-class organic quality and avoid consistently hydrogenated fats such as margarine, hardened palm or coconut fat. In finished products, almost exclusively hardened fats are used.
    • Exchange the unhealthy snacks (chips, pretzel sticks, biscuits, etc.) for healthy alternatives such as nuts, almonds, spelled sticks, rice waffles, chocolate with a high cocoa content, etc.
    • Drink as many as 2 liters of still water per day, so that your body can excrete already existing pollutants as quickly as possible.
Good fats protect the heart

“Eat rich in fat instead of low fat”. This recommendation completely contradicts what the vernacular usually holds to be correct, because so far was that a low-fat diet, the health of the heart would benefit. However, it has long been recognized that fat is a very important component of a functioning nutrient exchange and that a lack of healthy fats can contribute to chronic inflammation, which in turn leads to vascular damage and thus to heart disease. Especially important in this context is the quality of the fats. Healthy fats, which include primarily high-quality vegetable oils that are rich in unsaturated fatty acids, provide good protection against heart disease. In particular, fats with a high proportion of omega 3 (linseed oil, hemp oil, etc.) are of great benefit to the heart and should therefore be consumed daily.

But also high quality saturated fats are beneficial to the heart health, such as. Native and cold pressed organic coconut oil (not to be confused with hardened coconut fat, which is found in many finished products). Natural coconut oil contains the so-called lauric acid, which increases the proportion of “good” cholesterol in the body and thus supports the health of the heart.

Omega 3 fatty acids

Cold-pressed organic vegetable oils with a high omega-3 content are regarded as extremely valuable oils, especially with regard to heart health. Omega-3 fatty acids are able to keep the walls of the vessels flexible, promote blood circulation, inhibit the formation of blood clots and reduce inflammatory processes in the body. Of course, the cardiovascular system benefits first and foremost from these wonderful properties. Therefore, the use of an omega-3-rich vegetable oil, especially for already existing heart problems is strongly recommended. Since the positive properties of omega-3 fatty acids also affect other body areas, use of these oils is generally indicated.

Omega 3-rich oils should not be used exclusively, but always in combination or in alternation with other high-quality oils and fats.

Omega 6 fatty acids

People with a predisposition to cardiovascular disease should avoid vegetable oils with a high omega-6 fatty acid content. The reason for this is due to the linoleic acid also contained in these oils in large quantities. It can be enjoyed in excess inflammatory processes in the body trigger or reinforce existing inflammation.

Linoleic acid-containing foods should also be avoided. These include in particular meat and dairy products. Sunflower oil, thistle oil, soybean oil and corn oil have particularly high omega-6 levels in the case of Pflenzenölen.

Also in ready meals, sweets, pastries etc. these oils are contained there they are declared as “vegetable fats”.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are converted into sugar (glucose) during the digestive process. So that this sugar finally reaches our cells and can be converted into energy there, the body needs insulin as a means of transport. The more sugar is available, the more insulin the pancreas needs to provide for transport.

Normally, the insulin level rises slowly in the glucose arrival and also drops off slowly as it is transported to the cells. However, as we nowadays consume predominantly simple carbohydrates that can be used very rapidly from extracted flours or pure sugar, and consume them excessively, the pancreas constantly produces high levels of insulin. This abnormally high insulin level leads to an increase in cholesterol levels and triggers inflammation in the area of ​​the arterial walls. The strains that result for the cardiovascular system are obvious. Therefore, the recommendation was: Do not use any fast-acting sugars such as white flour products (bread, cakes, biscuits, etc.), refined sugar and all products made from them. Use wholesome flours, eat fiber-rich foods, and look for alternative sugar products (stevia, xylitol, dried fruit).

Also read in our sugar dictionary which sugar is healthy. 

best-diet-for-heart-healthy

Recommended heart healthy foods

Below is an overview of the most important foods for your heart :

    • Blueberries and redcurrants

Blueberries and currants contain substances (anthocyanins) that protect blood vessels from deposits and thus counter dreaded arteriosclerosis.

    • Water and honey melons

These sweet fruits have a very positive influence on the fluidity of the blood. They prevent the platelets from sticking together, thus preventing the formation of blood clots.

    • Carrots

The cholesterol level can be influenced very positively by the consumption of raw carrots. So eat about 200g of fresh grated carrots daily (add a few drops of a good oil).

    • Oats and barley

Oats and barley have a cholesterol-lowering effect. Oat, in particular, is known to be an effective tonic for the heart and blood vessels.

    • Walnuts

They contain a balanced nutrient composition, which together with their good fatty acid ratio have a very favorable influence on the cholesterol level. The heart-protecting effect of walnut has been proven in many clinical studies. The walnut shows a blood-thinning effect, which has a particularly positive effect on the supply of the heart with vital substances. A handful of walnuts a day is enough to do something really good for your heart.

    • Chinamorchel

Even small amounts of this mushroom, as they are usually used in cooking recipes are sufficient to prevent the sticking together of the platelets. Since these mushrooms keep the blood fluid, they represent a very good preventive measure against heart attack and stroke.

    • Ginger

In scientific studies, ginger root has proven to be a particularly effective anticoagulant. This blood thinning substance can reduce the formation of blood clots. Therefore, drink ginger water daily, which should be made from 1 teaspoon freshly grated ginger.

    • Garlic

Raw garlic is known for its blood-thinning and cholesterol-lowering effect and is therefore an important food for your heart health. Daily 2 to 3 tablespoons (depending on the weight of the person) should be consumed. Because of the unpleasant odor of garlic can be used on correspondingly high quality garlic capsules.

    • Onions

Onions have always been considered a remedy for many diseases. However, they are almost essential for a healthy cardiovascular system. In addition to blood thinning, lowering cholesterol, increasing HDL cholesterol and reducing clots, onions can also regulate blood sugar levels. By eating a large onion every day, you are already contributing to your heart health.

Freshly squeezed juices protect and strengthen your heart

“Living” foods, ie those that have not been cooked and thus still have an intact enzymatic structure, are extremely important for your heart health. Therefore, you should drink freshly squeezed juices and / or green smoothies daily. Both food preparations provide your body with a wealth of easily usable nutrients and nutrients. Your body thanks you with improved physical and mental health.

One of the best juice combinations for a strong heart is carrots and celery. Beets contain certain nutrients that naturally lower blood pressure, while carrots benefit your body’s regeneration of skin and body tissues. Celery, in turn, also helps lower blood pressure. In addition, it stimulates the relaxation of the arterial muscles and thus improves vascular dilation. This minimizes the risk of blood clots, which ultimately contribute to the development of heart and stroke.

The conventional diet is pronounced high in carbohydrates. Just think of the many breads, cakes, noodles, pizzas, etc., which are consumed not “just” every day, but also in absolute excess. These amounts of carbohydrates burden the entire organism in addition to the cardiovascular system. Therefore, a carbohydrate-rich diet makes every person ill – one sooner and the other a little later.

Instead of carbohydrates, your main focus should be on the consumption of high-quality vegetable proteins and fats. For the health of your heart, there is no better diet than that which has a high nutrient density on a plant basis. Fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds and sprouts are particularly noteworthy here. In addition to the nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats and proteins, plant foods contain a variety of easily bioavailable vitamins (especially vitamin C), minerals, enzymes and phytochemicals. Especially when consumed in raw form, these valuable nutrients are fully available to your body. If you do not want to give up meat, you should make sure that it comes from grazing or organically grown and should be consumed only rarely and in small quantities. The same applies to the fish consumption. The fish should be of the highest quality.

Diastolic Dysfunction Heart Failure, Diagnostics, and Treatment

Diastolic cardiac insufficiency exists when signs and symptoms of heart failure are present, but the left ventricular systolic function is still preserved (ejection fraction above 45%). It is important to differentiate the diastolic from the systolic heart failure so that it can be optimally treated.

The incidence of diastolic heart failure increases with age; in about 50 percent of elderly patients with heart failure, there is isolated diastolic dysfunction, write Chhabi Satpathy and colleagues in the American Family Physician. If diastolic dysfunction is diagnosed early and adequately treated, the prognosis is better than for systolic dysfunction.

Diastolic heart failure is clinically and radiologically indistinguishable from systolic heart failure. However, if there is a normal ejection fraction and an abnormal diastolic function with signs and symptoms of heart failure, diastolic heart failure can be diagnosed. Unlike systolic, diastolic heart failure can occur in isolation. Common causes of diastolic dysfunction include cardiac ischemia, hypertension, aging, obesity and aortic stenosis. Rarely, the disorder is caused by myocardial diseases such as cardiomyopathy, storage diseases and amyloidosis or sarcoidosis or by a disease of the pericardium.

In isolated diastolic dysfunction, there is a disorder of isovolumic ventricular relaxation and decreased compliance of the left ventricle. The transmission of higher end-diastolic pressures into the pulmonary circulation can cause pulmonary congestion leading to dyspnea and eventually right heart failure.

diastolic-heart-failure-treatment

Diagnostics

Heart failure may be manifested by fatigue, exertional dyspnoea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, orthopnea, cervical venous stasis, rales, tachycardia, third or fourth heart sounds, hepatomegaly, and edema. Cardiomegaly and congestion of the pulmonary veins often occur in chest radiographs, but these findings are non-specific and can also occur in non-cardiac diseases. It is difficult to distinguish diastolic from systolic heart failure on the basis of physical examination alone.

Two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography is of great importance in the diagnosis of diastolic heart failure. This study not only provides important information about ventricular size, myocardium, heart valves, systolic function and pericardium, but also provides information on diastolic transmitral and pulmonary venous blood flow. In echocardiography, the peak velocity of blood flow through the mitral valve in the early diastolic filling phase corresponds to the e-wave. The atrial contraction corresponds to the A-wave. From these values, the I / O quotient is calculated. Usually E is greater than A, and the I / O ratio is about 1.5.

In early diastolic dysfunction, relaxation is disturbed and the I / O ratio drops to less than 1.0 with atrial contraction. As the disease progresses, left ventricular compliance decreases, increasing left atrial pressure and early left ventricular filling despite disturbed relaxation. This paradoxical normalization of the I / O quotient is called “pseudo-normalization”. In patients with severe diastolic dysfunction, the left ventricle is filled, especially in early diastole, resulting in an I / O ratio above 2.0. Although cardiac catheterization is preferred in the diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction. However, two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography has proven to be the best noninvasive method in everyday clinical practice. Rarely, radionuclide angiography is performed, especially in patients who find echocardiography technically difficult.

Treatment

Primary prevention of diastolic heart failure includes nicotine abstinence and the aggressive treatment of high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease. Lifestyle changes such as weight loss, cessation of smoking, diet change, restriction of alcohol intake and physical activity serve to prevent diastolic and systolic heart failure. Diastolic dysfunction can remain asymptomatic for many years. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent irreversible structural changes and systolic dysfunction. At first glance, it seems that the treatment of diastolic and systolic heart failure is not very different. However, the treatment of diastolic heart failure is limited due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. In addition, optimal treatment for systolic heart failure may result in exacerbation of diastolic heart failure.

Improvement of the left ventricular function

For diastolic dysfunction, it is important to control the heart rate and prevent tachycardia to maximize the diastolic filling period. Beta-blockers are particularly useful for this purpose, but they do not directly affect myocardial relaxation. Beta blockers should be used in particular for the treatment of diastolic heart failure, if a high blood pressure, coronary heart disease or arrhythmia.

Optimization of hemodynamics

Hemodynamic optimization is achieved primarily by reducing cardiac preload and afterload. ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers directly affect myocardial relaxation and compliance by inhibiting the formation of angiotensin II or blocking angiotensin II receptors, thus preventing interstitial collagen deposition and fibrosis. A Hemodynamic optimization also results in better filling of the left ventricle. and lowering blood pressure. In addition, there is an improvement in exercise capacity and quality of life.

Diuretics may provide optimal intravascular volume in diastolic dysfunction patients, minimize dyspnoea, and prevent acute heart failure. Although diuretics control blood pressure, lead to regression of left ventricular hypertrophy and reduce left ventricular stiffness, some patients with diastolic heart failure are sensitive to preload and develop hypotension or severe prerenal azotemia.

The hormone aldosterone promotes cardiac fibrosis. The aldosterone antagonist spironolactone (Aldactone® or generic) has been studied in a large clinical trial in patients with systolic heart failure. There has been a reduction in heart failure-associated mortality, but the specific effects of spironolactone on diastolic dysfunction are unclear.

Calcium antagonists directly improve diastolic function through myocardial relaxation and indirectly by lowering blood pressure and heart rate, reducing myocardial ischemia, and promoting regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. However, non-dihydropyridine-type calcium antagonists such as verapamil (Isoptin® or generics) and diltiazem (Dilzem® or generic) should not be used in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Long-acting dihydropyridines such as amlodipine (Norvasc® or generic) should only be used to control heart rate and angina pectoris, If beta blockers are contraindicated or ineffective.

Vasodilators such as nitrates and hydralazine may be useful because of their anti-ischemic and preloading effects, especially if ACE inhibitors can not be used. However, vasodilators should be used with caution as a reduction in preload may reduce cardiac output.

Heart Valve Disease Symptoms And Treatment

Heart valve disease can affect any of the valves in the heart. The heart valves have flaps for opening and closing with each heartbeat, allowing blood to flow through the heart of the upper and lower chambers and the rest of the body.

The heart has four valves :

    1. Tricuspid valve located between the right atrium and the right ventricle
    2. Pulmonary valve located between the right atrium and the pulmonary artery
    3. Mitral valve, which is located between the left atrium, and left ventricle
    4. Aortic valve between the left ventricle and the aorta

Blood flows from the right and left atria across the tricuspid and mitral valve, allowing the blood to flow into the right and left ventricles. These valves then close the blood flowing back into the atria. Once the heart chambers are filled with blood, they begin to contract, forcing the lung and aortic valves to open. Blood then flows into the pulmonary artery and the aorta. The pulmonary artery carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs and the aorta, the body’s largest artery, is responsible for carrying oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body.

Basically, the heart valves work by making sure that blood flows in the forward direction and does not secure or leaks. If an individual has a valvular disease, the valve will not be able to do this job properly. This can be caused by regurgitation, stenosis or a combination of both.

Some individuals may experience no symptoms while other disorders such as strokes, heart attacks and thrombosis occur when the heart valve disease is left untreated.

valvular-heart-disease

Valvular heart disease

Mitral valve prolapse

This can also be called floppy valve syndrome, click marbles syndrome, balloon mitral valve or Barlow syndrome. It occurs when the mitral valve does not close properly, sometimes causing blood to flow back into the left atrium.

Most people with mitral valve prolapse do not require symptoms and no treatment as a result. However, symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue and coughing may indicate that treatment is necessary.

The treatment includes surgery to repair or replace the mitral valve.

Bicuspid aortic veins

This happens when a person is born with an aortic valve that has two valves instead of the usual three. In very severe cases, symptoms of this type of disorder are present at birth. However, some people may know that they have decades to go without this type of disorder. The valve is usually able to work for years without causing any symptoms, so most people with premolar aortic valve disease are usually diagnosed only in adulthood. According to the Cleveland Clinic, 80 percent of people with this form of heart valve disease will be operated to repair or replace the valve, which usually happens when they are in their 30s or 40s.

Symptoms include shortness of breath during exercise, chest pain and dizziness or fainting. Most people are able to successfully repair their aortic valve with surgery.

Valvular

This occurs when a valve is unable to fully open, which means that insufficient blood is able to flow through the valve. This can affect one of the heart valves, and can be caused by the heart valve thickening or stiffening.

Symptoms can include chest pain, shortness of breath, tiredness, dizziness and fainting. Some people do not need treatment. Other people may use valvuloplasty, which uses a balloon to inflate the valve or flap replacement surgery.

Valve insufficiency

This can also be called a “leaky valve” and occurs when one of the heart valves does not close properly, causing the blood to flow backwards. Symptoms include shortness of breath, coughing, tiredness, palpitations, drowsiness and swelling of the feet and ankles.

The effects of valve failure vary from person to person. Some people need to monitor their condition. Others may need prescribed medications to prevent fluid retention while others have valve repair or replacement.

heart-valve-disease-symptoms

Causes Of Valvular Heart Disease

There are a number of causes of various heart valve diseases. Causes can be :

    • birth defect
    • Endocarditis inflammation of the heart tissue
    • Rheumatic fever inflammatory disease brought on after group A streptococcal infection
    • Age-related changes, such as calcification
    • Heart attack
    • coronary artery disease
    • Cardiomyopathy degenerative changes in the heart muscle
    • Syphilis is a relatively rare sexually transmitted infection
    • hypertension
    • Aortic aneurysms abnormal swelling or protrusion of the aorta
    • Atherosclerosis Arteriosclerosis
    • myxomatous degeneration weakening of the connective tissue in the mitral valve
    • Lupus a chronic autoimmune disease,

Heart Valve Disease Symptoms

Symptoms of heart valve disorders according to the severity of the disease. Usually, the onset of symptoms indicates that the disorder is affecting blood flow. Many people with mild or moderate valvular heart disease experience no symptoms. However, symptoms can be :

    • shortness of breath
    • palpitation
    • fatigue
    • Chest pain
    • Dizziness and fainting
    • a headache
    • to cough
    • Water retention or swelling in the lower extremities and abdomen
    • Pulmonary edema or excess fluid in the lungs
How are heart valve diseases diagnosed?

If you have symptoms of heart valve disease, your doctor will start by listening to the heart using a stethoscope. He or she will listen for any heart rate abnormalities that might indicate a problem with the heart valves. Your doctor may also listen to the lungs to determine if there is fluid retention as well as check your body for signs of water retention, both symptoms of heart valve problems.

Other tests that can diagnose for valvular heart disease include :

    • Electrocardiogram is a test that shows the electrical activity of the heart. This test is used to check arrhythmia.
    • Echocardiography uses sound waves to create an image of the heart valves and chambers.
    • Cardiac catheterization is another test to diagnose valve disorders. This test uses a thin tube or catheter with a camera to take pictures of the heart and blood vessels. This can help to determine with your doctor the nature and severity of the disease valve.
    • A chest x-ray can be ordered to take a picture of your heart. This may be your doctor if your heart is enlarged.

Magnetic resonance imaging can create a more detailed picture of the heart. This can help to confirm a diagnosis and help your doctor determine how best to treat your valve disorder.

A stress test can also be used to determine how the symptoms are affected by physical exertion. The information from the stress test can help your doctor determine the severity of your condition.

Treatment Options

Treatments for heart valve disorders depend on the severity of the disease and symptoms. Most doctors recommend starting with conservative treatment. This includes :

    • consistent medical supervision
    • smoking
    • a healthy diet

Medications that are usually prescribed are :

    • Beta blocker and calcium channel blocker to help control heart rate and blood flow
    • Reduce diuretics for fluid retention
    • vasodilating drugs that open or dilate the blood vessels

Surgery may be needed if the symptoms increase in severity. This can be used to repair heart valves with patient’s own tissues or heart valve replacement with animal valves, donated valves, mechanical or valves.

Valvuloplasty can also treat the stenosis. A small balloon inserted into the heart, where it is slightly puffed up. The inflation will be the size of the opening in the valve and then the balloon is removed.

What Are The Most Common Stent Heart Side Effects?

Stents are small tubes that are suitable in arteries or ducts to keep them open when compromised. There are a variety of stents designed for various procedures and applications. Some of the procedures include the use of coronary, esophageal, ureteral and biliary stents. Most of them are made of stainless mesh and plastic steel; however, there are other stents that act as transplants and these are made from a special tissue. There are a number of common stent heart side effects that can occur and these could include clotting, calcification, bleeding and pain.

There are two types of stent heart that are typically used: bare mesh stents and stents that have been coated with a drug. These are referred to as drug-eluting stents and are used to prevent the arteries from restarting. These devices are usually more effective and save lives; however, there are cases where patients experience negative results. Clinical studies using wire mesh stents in the cerebral arteries found that the stents caused strokes in patients. Stent Side Effects When performing procedures for coronary heart blockage can sometimes cause chest pain, swelling of the arms or legs, and bleeding from the puncture site on the groin.

 

Uretal stents placed to allow urine to travel unhindered from the kidney to the bladder, sometimes irritate the bladder and cause pain to the back and groin areas. They can be moved from place and wandering in the bladder causing the patient to frequent urination and possibly cause blood to enter the urine. Physical activity can also cause the stent heart to move. Sometimes drug side effects can be lessened, and in most cases, they disappear when the stent is removed. Doctors recommend that patients with constant and severe pain or fever as a result of a stent should seek immediate medical attention.

Patients with stents Side effects of devices with medications sometimes present with blood clots, and in some cases allergic reactions to the stent itself coated. This is usually treated with medication; however, scarring at the site of the stent heart can be a common side effect. Medication-coated stents can also cause gastrointestinal bleeding, flu-like symptoms, chest pain and strokes. Studies have shown that these symptoms and effects can also occur in nude mesh stents, yet appear to be more potent in medical devices. Although not as common, other stent side effects are lung disease and even cancer.

    • A stent heart is a supporting device introduced into the body.
    • While recovering from the surgery, patients need to be careful to sit upright while eating to ensure food goes through the stent.
    • Stents are used to keep blood vessels free of blockages.
    • Blood clotting, calcification, bleeding and pain are among possible side effects of using stents in coronary artery procedures.
    • Some stent heart side effects in the treatment of coronary blockages can cause chest pain.