Bipolar Affective Disorder Symptoms

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Bipolar Affective Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a mental illness and is one of the affect disorders. Hence, it is also known as bipolar affective disorder (BAS). Bipolar disorders are characterized by extreme mood swings that can hardly be controlled at will. Longer-lasting depressive phases usually alternate with shorter euphoric and/or aggressive states. In particularly severe attacks, the manic phases can lead to psychosis with delusions such as megalomania or paranoia.

Frequency

Bipolar disorder is one of the rare affect disorders. The probability of a disease in the course of life (lifetime prevalence) is a maximum of 3 percent. Men and women are equally often affected. The frequency peak is in young adults between 18 and 25 years of age. Bipolar disorders are more often associated with other mental illnesses such as anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The incidence is also significantly higher in addicts and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Symptoms

Characteristic symptoms of bipolar disorder are strong mood swings that go far beyond the normal range and beyond that cannot be controlled by those affected.

Psychologists and neurologists distinguish between two main patterns. In the so-called bipolar I disorder, those affected experience extremely strong manic and depressive phases. In bipolar II disorder, the mood swings are much less pronounced. This is especially true in the manic phase. Doctors also speak of hypomania here.

Bipolar Affective Disorder

Symptoms Of Hypomania

A hypomanic episode of bipolar disorder usually lasts for about 4 days. Above all, it is characterized by an exceptionally high mood, which is not infrequently accompanied by increased irritability. Hypomania can resemble a healthy high mood. Hence there are other criteria for diagnosis. Accordingly, a hypomanic phase can be assumed if at least 3 of the following symptoms apply:

    • increased activity and restlessness
    • increased performance
    • unusual wealth of ideas
    • Conversation (torrent of speech, monologues)
    • Difficulty concentrating
    • decreased need for sleep
    • increased libido
    • reckless behavior
    • unusual sociability

Symptoms of the manic phase

In a manic episode, the symptoms are significantly more severe. Euphoria and restlessness know no bounds. Those affected are often barely recognizable to family members or friends. In pronounced phases, manic people know no limits and sometimes lose all risk control. This leads to reckless behavior, even without any self-protection. In a manic phase, people sometimes jump off bridges, knowing that they can fly – or that they are invulnerable.

Symptoms of the depressive phase

After about 7 to 10 days of the manic episode, a normal state often occurs for a short time. Moods and feelings can be influenced again and can be controlled normally. Sometime later, people with bipolar disorder lapse into a depression that usually lasts for weeks or months. Symptoms of the depressive phase are, for example, extremely sad mood, greatly reduced interest in family, friends, and acquaintances, weight loss or weight gain, increased need for sleep (sometimes throughout the day), extreme exhaustion and lack of energy, and recurring suicidal thoughts.

Causes

The causes of bipolar disorder have not yet been clarified. Presumably, there is a hereditary component. But that is not clearly proven either. It is noticeable that bipolar disorders are often associated with other mental illnesses. These include anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and addictions (especially illegal drugs and alcohol).

Treatment

    • Bipolar disorder is usually treated with a combination of psychotherapy and drug therapy.
    • Drug therapy for bipolar disorders

Antidepressants such as imipramine, clomipramine, or amitriptyline are sometimes used to lift mood and improve drive during periods of depression. However, there is a risk that those affected will slide into a manic phase more quickly. In the case of bipolar disorders, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have proven to be more effective in the depressive phase. These include citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline, among others.

In acute manic phases, it may be necessary to suppress the mania with mood modulators from the group of typical neuroleptics such as haloperidol and loxapine. Medicines from the group of atypical neuroleptics such as risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone are another alternative.

However, this form of drug therapy is usually only used in the acute phase, when those affected are forcibly committed to inpatient accommodation because of behavior that is harmful to themselves or others.

Many sufferers benefit from oral lithium in the prevention of acute attacks. However, it often takes a while to find the right dosage for the individual. In addition, adherence to therapy must be strong. Irregularities in the intake quickly lead to a new episode. Other live prophylactic drugs are carbamazepine, valproic acid, and lamotrigine.

Psychotherapy for bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder responds well to psychotherapeutic treatment. The prerequisite for this, however, is that those affected are ready for therapy at all. In addition, a framework must be created that is conducive to the psychological stability of those affected. At least at the beginning of psychotherapy, this is usually only possible in a specialized clinic. After a successful inpatient start, the therapy must be continued on an outpatient basis. In most cases, stable freedom from symptoms is only achieved after a longer treatment period of around 2 years.

Carbohydrates: Fast Energy For Athletes

Endurance athletes are almost dependent on a good energy supply during the competition in order to maintain their performance until the end.

During a marathon or a bike race, carbohydrates are therefore consumed in the form of drinks, bars, gel, or fruit. But when is which product the fastest source of energy for the body?

High Carbohydrate Bars

Carbohydrate-rich bars have been very popular for a long time; they are available in a variety of flavors and provide compressed energy. In order to be able to use the energy from this optimally, the athlete should also consume enough liquid so that the ingredients of the bar can be used quickly. The combination of bar and drink is usually easier for the cyclist, as he can transport everything he needs on his bike, whereas in running sports something is often only picked up at supply stations. It is precisely for this reason that these phases must be used optimally here. A sufficient and constant supply of fluids is also one of the basic requirements for continuous performance.

Fast Energy For Athletes

Energy Gel

An alternative to the bar is the gel. Here an energy gel from the pack is pressed or sucked directly into the mouth and can be consumed without chewing. Because of this, it may be a better choice for some runners. But even with the gel, liquid is necessary for optimal absorption of the ingredients.

Carbohydrates are also available in the form of drinks. These carbohydrate-rich fitness drinks provide energy and fluids in a variety of flavors at the same time. However, only a very low concentration can be achieved here in order to ensure a good absorption of the ingredients. Which is why these power drinks are not necessarily sufficient for a marathon for many runners. On the other hand, they are ideal for training units and sports in the gym.

Food Rich In Carbohydrates

The athlete can also choose from a large number of good carbohydrate suppliers from nature and “normal” food. For example, pasta and rice are very good carbohydrates for the body. However, they take some time to digest, which is why it is not advisable to consume them immediately before training or competition. Many cyclists, especially the professionals, therefore eat a large amount of pasta or rice hours before the start, so that the meal usually has already left the stomach by the time they start.

Fruit

Fruits, especially bananas, are also good sources of energy during competitions. They are soft and can therefore be easily consumed and digested. But here too, too much of it burdens the stomach, so the athlete should try out beforehand how much is good for him.

Eat And Drink Properly Before Sleep

You disturb your sleep with a heavy meal in the evening. Easily digestible food belongs on the table in the evening. With our tips for the right food and drink in the evening, you will make falling asleep and staying asleep easier. Digestive sleep after a large meal is a widespread habit in many cultures.

Eating actually makes you tired – because the body needs energy for digestion. This energy is then not available for activity. But as beneficial as digestive sleep may be, an afternoon nap can aggravate sleep problems. And even if lavish food makes you tired, it disturbs your night’s sleep. This also applies to stimulating drinks with caffeine or alcohol. If you want to sleep well, you should eat and drink the right thing in the afternoon at the latest.

No Caffeine After 4 p.m.

If you have problems falling asleep, you should avoid stimulating drinks such as coffee and cola or energy drinks relatively early in the day. Caffeine and guarana, which are contained in many energy drinks, only break down very slowly in the body. You should therefore refrain from drinking such drinks at least 4 hours before going to bed. By the way: black tea and green tea also contain caffeine.

Alcohol Disrupts Night Sleep

One of the common misconceptions about healthy sleep is that alcohol promotes sleep. Admittedly, many people fall asleep better if, for example, they drink a beer or a glass of red wine in the evening. Nevertheless, the breakdown of alcohol disturbs the nightly recovery processes, influences the flow of sleep phases, and promotes sleep disorders. Getting in the mood for the night with herbal teas Teas made from herbs or medicinal plants are particularly good drinks in the evening. Whether chamomile, fennel, hops, valerian, or other plants and plant mixtures: You have a large selection in which there is something for almost everyone.

Eat And Drink Properly Before Sleep

Don’t Eat Hard In The Evening

In order not to burden your sleep unnecessarily, you should preferably eat lightly in the evening. The simple rule of thumb applies the later, the easier. There should be about 2 to 3 hours between going to bed and your last meal. If you go further apart, you could get hungry again – and this disturbs sleep as well as overeating.

Easily Digestible Food Promotes Sleep

Lean meat, low-fat milk, and spices that are not too hot are recommended for a light dinner. You should avoid flatulent foods such as fresh wholemeal bread or legumes in the evening. White bread, pasta, potatoes or fruit are more suitable. Instead of fried French fries and pork schnitzel, you prefer turkey breast and low-fat dairy products for better sleep. Dairy products contain sleep-promoting tryptophan, as do dates and fish. Vitamin B 6 also promotes sleep. This vitamin is found in bananas and many leaf salads, among other things.

The Bedtime Treat

From the point of view of sleep researchers and doctors, a little sweet in the evening is allowed – sometimes even desired. A bar of chocolate, a cup of warm cocoa, a few cookies, or a small portion of sweet fruit influence the blood sugar level in such a way that it is easier for us to fall asleep. In addition, sweet things have a calming effect in small doses – without any risk of addiction and without disturbing the sleep process, as is the case with alcohol.

Use Sleeping Pills Properly

Taking sleeping pills is sometimes unavoidable – and a gift of blessing. But after a short time, they cause addiction. Read how to use sleeping pills correctly – so that sleeping pills don’t become the cause of sleep disorders. As paradoxical as it may sound, sleeping pills are one of the most common reasons for sleep disorders. Because almost all sleeping pills intervene deeply in the chemistry of sleep and are often also addictive. But sometimes sleeping pills are the drug of choice. However, it is important that you use sleeping pills properly.

Always Take Sleeping Pills For A Short Time

The most important guideline for the correct use of sleeping pills: Always take sleeping pills for as short a time as possible. You should never use sleeping pills for more than a week without medical advice. Depending on the type of medication, for example, prescription sleeping pills such as benzodiazepines can quickly develop into addiction. But over-the-counter sleeping pills can also be addictive. If your doctor keeps issuing sleep medication prescriptions without asking, it is best to contact another doctor to treat any sleep disorders.

Sleep Pills And Addiction

According to the German Central Office for Addiction Risks, around half of the users of sleeping pills develop an addiction to sleeping pills. In Germany alone, that is 400,000 sleep pill addicts every year. In total, around 2 million people are considered dependent on sleeping pills. About half of these people use the commonly prescribed benzodiazepines. Women are particularly susceptible to drug addiction and sleeping pill abuse. Numerous studies suggest that sleeping pills can significantly reduce life expectancy.

Use Sleeping Pills Properly

Sleep Pills Only If Verifiably Necessary

Sleep pills, and especially chemical sleep pills, are only suitable for self-treatment within very narrow limits. If, for example, you cannot sleep for understandable reasons such as jet lag or after an emotionally moving or stressful experience, a sleeping pill can be a blessing. Using sleeping pills to help you sleep despite your nervousness before an exam, on the other hand, is not a good idea. Almost all sleeping pills can work well into the day and severely limit physical and mental performance.

Big Market For Sleeping Pills

Despite the narrow limits of self-treatment, the market for over-the-counter sleeping pills and tranquilizers has been growing for years – even against the general trend. In 2012, Germans spent almost 200 million euros on non-prescription drugs for restlessness and sleep problems. Around 20 million packs of prescription benzodiazepines and similar substances went over the pharmacy counters (estimated turnover: 300 million euros).

Always See a Doctor If You Have Trouble Sleeping

If you have persistent sleep disorders, you should always contact an expert. This can be your family doctor or a psychologist. The sooner a sleep disorder is recognized, the more effective the treatment will be. Fortunately, most sleep disorders can be treated well. For otherwise healthy people, sleep specialists usually use non-drug methods such as sleep restriction and other behavioral therapeutic measures such as sleep rituals and a regular sleep rhythm.

Pregnancy Test: Hormonal Evidence of Pregnancy

After a fertilized egg has implanted in the uterus, the concentration of the hormone HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) in the blood and urine increases sharply. A pregnancy test can measure this increased concentration of HCG in the urine. Modern pregnancy tests can indicate pregnancy immediately after the absence of the period or even 10 days after sexual intercourse.

Pregnancy Test

The procedure is slightly different for the individual tests. The concentration of HCG hormones is highest in the morning urine immediately after getting up, but most tests can be carried out at any time of the day. In modern tests, a test stick or test disc is simply moistened with urine and after a short time, the result can be read. The test consists of a control field, which changes color to indicate whether the test was carried out correctly, and a result field, which changes color only if you are pregnant. Slight discoloration in the right place in the results field also indicates pregnancy. However, the test should then be repeated after a few days. Even if the test was negative but there is no menstrual period, the test should be repeated.

Young preganant woman expecting a baby happy parent

When To See A Doctor

When the pregnancy test is positive. If the test is negative but there is no bleeding. What your doctor can do:

    • The doctor can detect HCG hormone in the blood during pregnancy.
    • The doctor can use ultrasound to determine whether you are pregnant.

Workout Against Tension

Tension Trap At The Desk

Among classic “desk criminals” who do their work every day in front of the computer in the office, it is rather the exception that they have never had neck, shoulder or back tension. These annoying tensions haunt most of those affected for years and, if ignored, can lead to hardening and restricted mobility in the long term.

Exercise and the correct sitting position are good ways out of this tension trap. But just sport is not the solution here either, because those affected should make sure that the problem areas are also mobilized. Exercise generally relaxes the muscles, but jogging, for example, is not suitable for specifically targeting neck or shoulder tension. An effective means of counteracting this is mobilizing the affected areas. In the following, therefore, exercises are presented on the one hand that comfortably and quickly loosen and stretch the areas. There are also helpful tips on how to achieve a good sitting position in front of the screen.

    1. Relaxation of the neck

The starting point for this exercise is an upright, sitting position. Hold on to the chair seat with both hands. Then slowly tilt your head to the left so that the ear moves towards your left shoulder and hold this position for 3 breaths. Gently pull your right shoulder downwards.

Then change sides. Repeat the exercise 3 times.

More exercises:

    • Bring both arms forward. Pull your shoulders forward as well.
    • Then cross your arms behind your head. The neck remains long. Slowly push your head against the resistance of your hands.
    1. Relief Of The Shoulder Girdle And Thoracic Spine

The starting point for this exercise is an upright, sitting position. Let your arms hang down and relax your hands on your thighs:

Then first lift one shoulder up to your ear while you breathe in. Now let your shoulder fall and breathe out.

Then do the exercise with the other shoulder. The third time, use both shoulders at the same time, inhaling again as you lift and exhale as you lower your shoulders. Repeat the exercise 3 times if possible.

Another exercise:

    • Your arms hang relaxed next to your thighs. Now drop your shoulders forward, twisting your thumbs inward and exhaling. Then pull your shoulders back and straighten your body, twisting your thumbs outward and exhaling again. Finally, let your shoulders fall forward, turning your thumbs inward again and exhaling again. Also repeat this exercise 3 times if possible.

Workout Against Tension

    1. Relief of the lumbar spine

Please sit on the front edge of the chair. The hands lie loosely on the thighs. Now please make your back as round as possible and breathe out. Then make a slight hollow back and breathe in. Please repeat this exercise 5 times.

More exercises:

    • Please sit back on the front edge of the chair. The arms hang loosely to the side. Now lift your right foot – hold it for a breath – and then lower it. Then repeat this with your left foot. Repeat this exercise several times (up to 30 times), paying attention to maintaining the upright sitting position.
    • Extend your arms sideways to the floor, palms facing forward. Pull your shoulders back and tense your stomach and buttocks. Hold this tension for 3 breaths. Then let go again. Repeat this exercise 4 times.
    1. Relaxation For Your Face

To relax the face, you must first contract the following muscles and hold them for about 2 breaths. Then release the tension by exhaling and relax for about 5 breaths at a time.

    • Raise the eyebrows.
    • Screw up your eyes.
    • Press your lips together.
    • Make your mouth really wide, like a clown.
    1. Relaxation of the eyes

Rub your palms against each other quickly and vigorously to warm them up.

Now place your palms over your closed eyes so that no light can penetrate. No pressure should be applied.

Please make sure that you do not tense the neck and back muscles. Breathe calmly and evenly. Relax your eyes and enjoy the soothing warm darkness. After 2-3 minutes, take a few deep breaths and take your hands away from your eyes. The light will then blind you for a short time.

Another exercise:

    • Keep your eyes moving. Wander around the screen every now and then and feel the surroundings with your eyes. Try to concentrate on things at the edge of your field of vision, this strengthens your perception.
    1. Exercises To Relax Arms And Hands

The arms are extended in front of the body at shoulder height, with the palms facing down. Now make a fist and bring the fist to your chest. the elbow stays at shoulder height. The arms are then brought forward again in one quick movement. Repeat this exercise 5-10 times.

Extend your arms forward, palms facing the floor, and hold this position. Now bend your wrist so that the palms point towards your body. Then fold your hands up so that the back of your hand is facing your body. Keep your fingers stretched during this exercise. Repeat this exercise 6 times.

More exercises:

    • Extend your arms forward long. Spread your fingers wide apart. Now make a fist. Then spread your fingers wide apart again. Please repeat several times.
    • Frequently let your arms hang down relaxed and then shake out your arms, hands, and fingers vigorously for 5 seconds.

Typical Symptoms Of Sore Throat

Symptoms

The reddened lining of the throat, scratching and pain in the throat, difficulty swallowing, and fever are the typical symptoms of a sore throat. Often, as a sign of an alarming immune system, the lymph nodes in the lower jaw and neck are swollen. In the case of tonsillitis (the technical term is angina tonsillaris or tonsillitis), there are also swollen and reddened or even ulcerated tonsils. If the larynx or vocal cords are inflamed, there is also hoarseness.

A scratchy, swollen throat is often associated with a cold or flu. In many cases, there are also annoying swallowing difficulties and hoarseness. You can find out more about the causes and treatment of sore throats here.

It often begins with a scratchy throat or difficulty swallowing: sore throats announce themselves. Most often, a sore throat is a symptom of a cold, flu, or other respiratory infection. Typically, a sore throat will go away with the underlying viral infection. Antibiotics help if the cause of infection is bacterial, such as tonsillitis.

Causes

A sore throat can be a symptom of an isolated infection caused by a virus or bacteria. Most often, a sore throat is a symptom of a cold, flu, or other respiratory infection. The germs cause inflammation of the mucous membrane in the throat area. Depending on where the pathogens settle, a distinction is made between inflammation of the lining of the throat (pharyngitis), inflammation of the vocal cords or larynx (laryngitis), or tonsillitis or angina tonsillaris. Mixed forms also occur.

In addition to bacteria and viruses, sore throats can also be caused by overuse of the voice and irritation of the airways (for example from chemicals, tobacco smoke, or dust). Other diseases such as mumps, scarlet fever, or Pfeifferscher’s glandular fever also cause sore throats.

Sore throats also occur due to esophageal or stomach disorders. The backflow of stomach contents through the esophagus causes heartburn, which is often accompanied by a sore throat.

Sore Throat

Causes Of A Sore Throat At A Glance

    • Cold, flu, angina (tonsillitis)
    • Overuse of the voice by singing, shouting, talking for a long time
    • Irritation of the respiratory tract from chemicals, smoke, or dusty, dry air
    • other diseases, e.g. glandular fever, pseudocroup, mumps, scarlet fever
    • Heartburn from gastric acid reflux
    • very rarely malignant tumors in the throat area.

Treatment

Sore throats usually do not require medical attention. Exceptions: The symptoms are very severe, do not subside after a few days, there are breathing difficulties or there is a suspicion of tonsillitis or other diseases.

Treatment Of A Sore Throat At The Doctor

If a bacterial infection is causing a sore throat, your doctor will prescribe antibiotics to fight the bacteria that cause disease. Antibiotics do not help with viral infections. Here the symptoms can be alleviated with home remedies and over-the-counter medicines.

Home Remedies For A Sore Throat

The following home remedies have proven to be particularly effective for helping yourself with a sore throat.

    • drink a lot
    • keep warm, especially your throat and chest, but do not sweat
    • keep the room air moist in winter
    • Avoid irritants, do not smoke
    • Gargling or inhaling herbal ingredients from arnica, Icelandic moss, chamomile flowers, thyme, linden flowers or sage leaves.

Over-The-Counter Drugs For A Sore Throat

    • Disinfecting gargle solutions, mouth sprays, or lozenges with active ingredients such as hexetidine or cetylpyridinium chloride have anti-inflammatory effects.
    • In the case of slight reddening and pain, anti-inflammatory lozenges or rinsing solutions (e.g. chamomile or sage extracts for rinsing, tablets containing dexpanthenol for sucking) are effective.
    • Lozenges or sprays with superficial anesthetics help with pain and difficulty swallowing.
    • In the case of more severe pain, short-term anti-inflammatory pain pills for ingestion with acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen or paracetamol, which at the same time reduce fever, are useful.
    • The local application of antibiotics usually does not make sense.

Prevention

It is only possible to a limited extent to prevent a sore throat. Basically, the same recommendations apply that you can read under respiratory infections and colds.

Homeopathy

Homeopathy is viewed as a stimulus therapy in which the body is given incentives to heal a disease on its own by taking certain, highly diluted remedies. The term “homeopathy” is made up of the Greek words “homoios” (similar) and “pathos” (suffering). In homeopathy, the disease is mainly treated by means that work according to the so-called similarity principle. It is based on the observation that a substance that causes certain complaints in humans or animals can also cure the same (or similar) complaints. Within homeopathic teaching, there are different directions with different conceptions of how the homeopathic principles should be implemented.

Origin And Philosophy Of Homeopathy

The principle of similarity occurs in different cultures and also in the writings of the ancient Greeks, for example with Hippocrates. The similarity principle was also taken up, again and again, later in the course of medical history. The German doctor, pharmacist, and chemist Dr. Med. Habil. However, Samuel Hahnemann (1755 – 1843) was the first to systematize this principle and use it as the basis for a new direction in medicine. His “Organon” and other publications are still used in practice by homeopaths today.

Hahnemann developed homeopathy on the basis of a large number of self-experiments with medicinal products. His first self-experiment took place with cinchona bark, which was used to treat intermittent fever (malaria). Hahnemann took a large amount of cinchona bark without having a fever himself and developed a fever. After several further attempts with different drugs, he came to the conclusion that substances that cause certain symptoms (e.g. fever) in healthy people can cure the same symptoms (e.g. febrile colds) in sick people. According to Hahnemann, the organism of a sick person receives an impulse from the drug to use its defenses in a targeted manner against certain symptoms of the disease.

The principle of homeopathy is based on these findings: «Similia similibus curentur» (the like is cured by the like). Hahnemann discovered in further theoretical and practical investigations with medicinal products that the effectiveness of the substances changes due to their concentration. Diluted drugs often showed a stronger effect than the undiluted basic substance. Thereupon he developed a special production and dosage theory, the potentization process and the principle of the smallest dose.

Manufacture Of Homeopathic Remedies

When producing homeopathic remedies, one proceeds according to a homeopathic drug book. The starting substance is gradually diluted in a certain ratio with water, alcohol or lactose and potentized after each dilution step by shaking or rubbing. Today, three different dilution series are used in homeopathy: D, C, and LM. The only difference between the D and C series is the dilution ratio:

D = decimal power

Dilution ratio: 1: 9 (Latin decem = 10)

In the D series, one part of Vorpotenz (for example D1) is mixed with nine parts of thinner and then shaken vigorously at least ten times (liquids) or rubbed in a mortar for an hour (powder). The result is a D2, which you dilute again tenfold and potentiate to produce the D3.

C = centesimal power

Dilution ratio: 1:99 (Latin centum = 100)

In the C series, one part of pre-potency (for example C1) is mixed with ninety-nine parts of diluent and then potentized.

LM or Q power:

Each dilution step corresponds to a ratio between starting substance and diluent of 1: 50,000.

Hahnemann developed the third series of potentiations, called LM or Q potency, in the last years of his life. LM potencies are produced using a special, very complex process. Each dilution step corresponds to a ratio between the starting substance and the diluent of 1: 50,000. The higher the number after the D, C or LM, the stronger and longer-lasting the effect of the homeopathic medicine.

Powers above D30 or C30 are called high potencies. These are mainly used by homeopaths to treat chronic ailments.

Homeopathy

Application Of Homeopathy

Homeopathic remedies are mainly supplied in the form of globules, drops, tablets, and ointments. Some doctors also give homeopathic medicines through a syringe. Before a new homeopathic drug is used to treat sick people, it is only tried on healthy test subjects (drug testing on healthy people). These write down the physical and psychological changes that occur after taking the product. These changes indicate which symptoms in sick people could be alleviated with the same remedy. For example, homeopathically diluted bee venom (apis) is used to relieve symptoms caused by a bee sting, provided that it is a pink swelling that is warm to the touch and the pain is relieved by applying ice. Another simple example is remedies made from homeopathically diluted onion extracts. These are given off in the case of a cold, in which the eyes water and the nose runny.

In the case of complex diseases, the homeopath needs a lot of experience to find the right remedy. The active ingredients used in homeopathy mainly consist of natural substances such as plants, minerals, and animal substances. “Classically”, that is, according to Hahnemann’s teaching, working homeopaths administer so-called “individual remedies” to their patients. Individual remedies consist of a single basic substance, for example, a mineral, an animal substance, or an extract from a flower, and they contain a whole range of ingredients from the plant.

The homeopath recognizes that he has chosen the right remedy for the treatment of his patient, among other things by the so-called «initial worsening» (healing reaction) of the symptoms. This means that the patient’s illness may worsen in the initial phase of treatment. Such initial aggravations are usually more severe, the higher the potency of the administered agent, i.e. the greater the dilution. After the initial deterioration has disappeared, a significant improvement in the state of health can occur within a few days. Mixed preparations made from various individual remedies are mainly used in the treatment of acute illnesses such as flu, runny nose, or indigestion. They are very suitable for self-medication. However, many classic homeopaths reject the administration of mixed preparations.

So that the homeopathic remedies develop their optimal effectiveness, one should observe certain rules when taking them, for example, Homeopathic remedies should be taken as often as necessary and as rarely as possible. The more acute and serious disease is, the more often you should take the remedy. If the symptoms of the disease improve significantly, the homeopathic remedy should no longer be taken. If possible, you should not combine several homeopathic remedies. In the event of a healing reaction, the drug should be discontinued until the reaction has completely disappeared.

Homeopathic Technique

Before each homeopathic treatment, the individual clinical picture must be precisely recorded in a detailed and long conversation. In the initial consultation, the patient describes his symptoms as detailed as possible so that the homeopath can draw conclusions about appropriate homeopathic remedies from the clinical picture. In the case of headaches, for example, a distinction is made between whether the pain is felt as throbbing, pulling, or stabbing, whether the pain tends to subside in the fresh air or in closed rooms, or whether the patient feels the need to lie down to relieve the symptoms. The homeopath chooses a suitable remedy depending on the pain sensation. Further information about the patient will help him with this. He, therefore, asks about the patient’s inclinations, interests, character, and reactions to environmental stimuli. He also takes physical characteristics such as height, weight, and constitution into account when making his assessment.

After the initial consultation, the homeopath looks up the important symptoms in a so-called “repertory”. This look-up is therefore called “repertorisation”. Depending on the nature of the complaints, the repertorization places more emphasis on the physical complaints or on the personality of the patient. In classical homeopathy, the same remedies are not administered to every patient with the same symptoms. Depending on the type of person affected, the treatment is adapted accordingly. For this reason, the first interview plays a crucial role. In contrast to chronic complaints, it is usually much easier to find the right remedy for acute illnesses. The dispensing of homeopathic remedies without considering accompanying symptoms as well as alleviating or worsening influences is not considered a correct homeopathic treatment in the circles of classic homeopaths practicing according to Hahnemann.

Effect Of Homeopathic Remedies

Hahnemann explained the effectiveness of homeopathic remedies by stating that it is not the concentration that is decisive, but the “dynamization” or the release of a force of the substances. This happens during potentization: By shaking the substance several times, the information on the basic substances should be transferred to the diluent, even if no basic substances can be detected materially or chemically. The effect of the diluted basic substances should enable the body to heal its illness with its own strength. In the meantime, many doctors trained in conventional medicine also use homeopathy to treat various diseases, for example:

    • Allergies (but not in the case of life-threatening reactions)
    • Defensive weakness
    • Chronic diseases
    • Psychosomatic illnesses

Side Effects Of Homeopathic Preparations

Today there are around 2500 homeopathic single and mixed preparations available, which are used for many diseases. However, a necessary surgical intervention or the supply of vital substances cannot be replaced by homeopathic therapy. That is why homeopathic remedies are only used as an accompanying therapy in the treatment of serious, acute illnesses.

Laparoscopy

Definition of laparoscopy

As a diagnostic method, it is mainly used for unclear abdominal complaints and when other examinations such as ultrasound or computer tomography did not provide any information. Laparoscopy is a minimally stressful (minimally invasive) procedure that takes place under general anesthesia. Depending on the scope of the examination, the laparoscopy is performed on an outpatient basis or in a hospital and takes about 10 to 30 minutes.

Application Examples For Laparoscopy

    • For women who want to have children, check the patency of the fallopian tubes as well as for sterilization.
    • Examination of the liver, pancreas, spleen, and uterus as well as the stomach and intestines.
    • Taking tissue samples for microscopic examination (biopsy) to assess whether a tumor is benign or malignant.
    • Testicle search

Operative interventions

    • Removal of the gallbladder (laparoscopic cholecystectomy)
    • Removal of kidney cysts
    • Removal of the appendix from the appendix (laparoscopic appendectomy) in appendicitis
    • Removal of the uterus (laparoscopic hysterectomy)
    • Removal of fibroids and islets of endometriosis in endometriosis (growths of the uterine lining)
    • Inguinal hernia surgery
    • Cutting the branches of the 10th cranial nerve (vagus nerve) to reduce gastric acid production in gastric and duodenal ulcers
    • Creation of an artificial intestinal outlet (anus praeter).

Laparoscopy

The course of the laparoscopy

General anesthesia is necessary for laparoscopy. So that the doctor has space and an overview of the abdomen, carbon dioxide is first filled into the abdomen as a gas through a small skin incision with a hollow needle. The laparoscope (instrument with light source and camera) and surgical instruments (e.g. suction devices or forceps) are inserted through further small incisions in the abdominal wall. The camera transmits the recordings to the monitor so that the surgical team can see what is happening in the abdominal cavity.

Before laparoscopy

In order to minimize complications, you should inform the doctor of any pre-existing medical conditions and previous surgeries before the laparoscopy.

After the laparoscopy

You are often allowed to leave the hospital or practice shortly after a laparoscopy. On the day of the operation, it is better not to drive yourself. Use public transport. Better yet, have someone pick you up or take a taxi.

It is generally recommended that you remain under observation for a few hours after the laparoscopy. During this and afterward, you should rest, lie in bed, and, if possible, sleep. A mild pain reliever, such as an agent with the active ingredient ibuprofen, can help against pressure pain in the abdomen. As a rule, the attending physician will give you a recommendation or even give you the medication.

Side Effects Of Laparoscopy

The side effects of laparoscopy can include:

    • Nausea, headache, exhaustion as a result of anesthesia
    • Tenderness and bruising on the abdomen
    • Pain in the shoulders and pelvis
    • Injuries to surrounding organs are very rare.

Coverage of the Laparoscopy

Not all reasons (indications) for laparoscopy are a health insurance benefit. If the doctor has a prescription (i.e. for every medically necessary procedure), the costs are usually covered.