Immune Deficiency

Definition

The immune system of our body protects us – mostly reliably and usually unnoticed – from pathogens. Doctors speak of immune deficiency or immune deficiency when the body’s own defenses are pathological or not fully functional.

Symptoms

Symptoms of the immune deficiency are above all an increased susceptibility to infection and – in the case of an infection – a protracted or complicated course of the disease. On average, every German has a respiratory infection such as cough, bronchitis, or runny nose around twice a year. If such diseases occur much more often and without an identifiable cause, there is a suspicion of a weak immune system.

Causes

Deficiency in the immune system can be congenital or acquired. In the congenital form, the development of the stem cells is usually disturbed or there is a lack of antibodies. More common, however, is the acquired immune deficiency. This leads to the fact that you get sick more often and more severely than other people. Typical causes of immune deficiency are:

    • Infections, injuries, operations, transplants
    • Cortisone therapy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy
    • Diseases such as HIV infection, leukemia, or diabetes
    • Removal of the spleen, tonsils, or appendix
    • Unhealthy diet with a lack of vitamins or minerals, such as iron deficiency
    • Heavy physical strain (physical work, competitive sports)
    • Stress, emotional stress, depression
    • Eating disorders such as anorexia or vomiting addiction
    • Drug and alcohol abuse
    • smoking
    • Lack of sleep or trouble sleeping

Examination

If necessary, your doctor will take some blood to help make a diagnosis of immune deficiency. The concentration of white blood cells is particularly meaningful for determining the functionality of the unspecific immune system. One microliter of blood in healthy people usually contains between 4,000 and 8,000 leukocytes.

A blood test can also demonstrate a weak immune system as a result of a disruption of the specific immune system. For this immune status, for example, a complete blood count is made, in which, among other things, antibodies (immunoglobulins), certain proteins or immune cells are determined more precisely.

Treatment

As a rule, a weak immune system is a weakened, unspecific immune system. In these cases, it is usually sufficient to follow the recommendations given under “Self-help in the case of immune deficiency”. It is different from a defensive weakness of the specific immune system. This is mostly caused by illness or medication. Here the doctor will usually treat the causative illness and/or change medication.

Vaccination against influenza and other infectious diseases such as hepatitis A and hepatitis B, diphtheria, pneumococci, or tetanus is recommended, especially in the case of specific immune deficiencies. These vaccines belong to the group of dead vaccines and can usually be given to people with weak immune systems without the risk of undesirable side effects. There is a certain risk with vaccinations with so-called live vaccines such as measles, mumps, rubella, or chickenpox. It is best to ask your family doctor about this.

Self-Help Against A Weak Immune System

Strengthening the immune system of largely healthy people benefits above all from exercise and a fresh, varied diet with many vitamins and minerals. In the following, you will find many suggestions for effectively strengthening the immune system.

Immune Deficiency

Healthy, Fresh Foods Strengthen The Immune System

Unless a disease is the cause or consequence of the immune deficiency, nutrition comes first. To effectively strengthen the immune system, you hardly need to know anything about food. And expensive fashion foods such as chia, quinoa, Kamut, or goji berries are also not a must. Just eat as fresh and varied as possible. Rely on local fruit and vegetables as well as fish and whole-grain products. They provide a wide variety of vitamins, fiber, minerals, and trace elements that strengthen the immune system.

Cook yourself as often as possible. And avoid industrially pretreated food. All experts agree: the fresher, more natural, and varied the diet, the better it is for the immune system. This form of nutrition very often has another advantage: You maintain your weight or even lose it – and also reduce the risk of diet-related diseases such as diabetes and high cholesterol levels.

Vitamins A, C, D, and E as well as the trace elements iron and zinc are particularly important for the immune system. They are contained in fresh fruit and vegetables, for example, in a composition that is very useful for the organism.

Exercise Strengthens The Immune System

Numerous studies have shown that exercise strengthens the immune system. Just 20 minutes a day – preferably in the fresh air – gets the immune system going much better. Exercise is a turbo for healing and prevention – and can even strengthen the immune system so much that the risk of developing cancer is almost halved.

Relaxation and sleep also play an important role. Relaxation exercises such as simple breathing techniques, meditation or autogenic training not only reduce stress (and thus relieve the body’s own defenses), but also strengthen the immune system directly. The immune system is particularly active at night while we are sleeping. In the topic special “Healthy Sleep” you will find many suggestions with which you can get rid of sleep problems and prevent sleep disorders.

Strengthen The Immune System With Home Remedies

Traditional medicine knows many home remedies that you can use to strengthen the immune system. These are for example:

    • A cold shower in the morning. First, take a warm shower for 5 minutes, then briefly shower with cold water from the outside towards the middle of the body (heart).
    • Kneipp applications, e.g. treading water
    • Sauna and plunge pool (if you have blood pressure problems or cardiovascular diseases, consult your doctor as a precaution.)
    • Drink herbal tea, for example with orchid, taiga root, coneflower, ginseng, lime blossom, or elderflower
    • Nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol put a strain on the immune system – and also disrupt the deep sleep that is so important for the regeneration of the body’s defenses.
    • Breastfeeding protects the baby from infections because it receives certain antibodies from the mother with the milk.

Anti-Immune Medication

As a rule, healthy people do not need medication for immune system weaknesses or nutritional supplements that are supposed to strengthen the immune system. Nevertheless, herbal remedies and nutritional supplements containing minerals are particularly popular. The benefits for largely healthy people have not been adequately proven from a medical point of view. This applies, for example, to the intake of herbal preparations, drops, or tablets that stimulate the body’s unspecific defenses. The preparations often contain extracts from Echinacea (coneflower), Eupatorium (water feast), Thuja (tree of life), Baptisia (indigo), or Eleutherococcus. The ingredients are also offered as homeopathic medicines.

In consultation with the doctor, vitamin preparations or minerals can be useful. However, this only applies in the event of a vitamin deficiency or deficiency in minerals. Preferably, you should take in vitamins and minerals fresh with your food. Taking a zinc supplement can help prevent colds. But not according to the principle: “A lot helps a lot”. More than 100 mg of zinc a day can lead to vomiting and diarrhea.

Prevention

The best way to prevent weak immune systems is to heed the recommendations given under “Self-help against weak immune systems”. If you have colds or infectious diseases more than average (more than 2 to 3 times a year), you should have the cause examined by a doctor. This is especially true for sick and debilitated people, senior citizens, and children of all ages.

Function Of The Immune System

The body has a complicated defense system that intercepts and destroys invading microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi) and substances produced by pathogens. A distinction is made between two systems that work closely together.

Nonspecific And Specific Immune System

The unspecific immune system is generally directed against invading pathogens and tries to kill them. This happens regardless of the type of pathogen and the triggering disease.

The specific immune system acts much more specifically against germs. Depending on the structure of the respective pathogen, it forms special antidotes (so-called antibodies), with the help of which the disease is overcome. In some cases, a kind of memory of the disease that has been overcome remains in the cells of the specific immune system, so that the effective antibodies can be produced immediately upon renewed contact. With such diseases, immunity is built up upon initial contact. You usually only get these diseases once in a lifetime. Typical examples are measles, mumps, and rubella. The principle of vaccination is also based on the functioning of the specific defense system. Here, too, special antibodies are formed that prevent disease.

Immune System And Flu

In the case of certain virus infections such as flu, the virus changes its shape over the course of a year so that the body no longer recognizes it the next time it comes into contact and becomes ill again because it first has to produce new antibodies. Because of this variability of the flu virus, there is still no long-lasting flu vaccination. Rather, the flu vaccine has to be redesigned every season on suspicion.

Primary Immunodeficiency

Primary immunodeficiencies are congenital disorders of the immune system. Medicine now knows more than 300 different clinical pictures, many of them are among the rare diseases. More about the symptoms, causes, and therapy of primary immunodeficiency.

Definition

Primary immunodeficiencies are congenital disorders of the immune system, which can also be hereditary. The children are born with an immune system that cannot work properly or is incorrectly designed. As a result, those affected are exposed to an increased risk of infection. Medicine now knows more than 300 different clinical pictures that are caused by primary immunodeficiency. Some of the immune defects are so pronounced that the affected children cannot survive the first year of life without stem cell therapy. The symptoms can also only develop in the course of childhood or adulthood. Or they are recognized as an immunodeficiency after years of a doctor odyssey. Because most primary immune defects are very rare – and therefore not even known to many medical professionals. Some immunodeficiencies are treatable, others cannot. The most promising treatment options for primary immune deficits are drug therapy with immunoglobulins and stem cell transplants.

The Function Of The Immune System

Most people know the immune system as a protection against infection. The defense against pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites is only one task of the body’s own defense. A healthy immune system also fights cancer cells, for example, or protects the body cells from harmful influences. A defective immune system, on the other hand, triggers allergies, rheumatic diseases, or other autoimmune diseases.

The immune system is an extremely complex system. The most important actors in this system include antibodies, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, and their subgroups, as well as natural killer cells.

Antibody

Antibody is a slang term for the so-called immunoglobulins. This is a large group of special proteins that the immune system produces after contact with pathogens or their components. Immunoglobulins are produced by the B lymphocytes.

B lymphocytes

B lymphocytes (B cells for short) are a specific group of white blood cells called leukocytes. They play a central role in the immune system, as they are involved in the recognition of foreign germs and substances on the one hand and in the formation of antibodies on the other. B lymphocytes – like all other cells – arise from stem cells in the bone marrow. In the development process from the stem cell to the antibody-producing B-lymphocyte, a wide variety of genetic defects can cause various diseases. Two examples are B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas and B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia.

T lymphocytes

T lymphocytes (also called T cells) are another type of white blood cell called leukocytes. These defense cells are also formed in the bone marrow and, like the B cells, belong to the acquired immune system. They experience their actual “training” in the thymus gland, for example, to fight fungal or viral infections. To do this, T lymphocytes control the cell membranes of cells. However, T lymphocytes are not able to recognize pathogens on their own. To do this, they rely on antigen-presenting cells such as B lymphocytes. As soon as these cells present pathogens, T lymphocytes become active.

T Helper Cells

The T-helper cells are a subgroup of the T-lymphocytes. They recognize presented antigens and decide whether the body’s own defense system needs to be active. If so, the T helper cells pass on information to the killer cells via so-called receptors. These then destroy the infected or damaged cells.

T Suppressor Cells

Another important subgroup of T lymphocytes is T suppressor cells. After successfully fighting the pathogens, they suppress the active immune system. This prevents excessive immune reactions against healthy body tissue (so-called autoimmune reactions).

T Memory Cells

Memory T cells also belong to the T lymphocytes. These have a preventive effect by storing information about the pathogens being controlled. As soon as the same pathogen penetrates the body again, the “knowledge” of the T memory cells enables rapid defense measures. This often happens so quickly that an infection is not even noticed.

Primary Immunodeficiency

Phagocytes

Phagocytes are specialized cells of the immune system, which are also known as phagocytes or macrophages. They belong to the innate defense system. Scavenger cells envelop identified foreign bodies such as pathogens or cell debris and break them down. Like B and T lymphocytes, phagocytes belong to the white blood cells, the leukocytes. Subtypes of leukocytes are precursor immune cells such as monocytes (which transform into macrophages) and granulocytes (which in turn can be divided into three subgroups).

Natural Killer Cells

Natural killer cells are another subgroup of white blood cells that do not belong to either the B or T lymphocyte group. Like phagocytes, they are part of the innate immune system. Natural killer cells got their name because they can trigger the programmed cell death of these cells, especially in virus-infected or degenerate cells (cancer). Doctors refer to programmed cell death as apoptosis.

Frequency

Fortunately, primary immunodeficiencies are very rare. There is about 1 case of congenital immunodeficiency for every 10,000 births. In Germany, there are currently an estimated 100,000 people with PGD. About 70 percent of the cases are immune deficiencies with a lack of antibodies.

Since the total number of sufferers is spread over more than 300 diagnoses, many of the primary immunodeficiencies are rare diseases, orphan diseases.

Symptoms

The symptoms of primary immunodeficiency can vary widely. This mainly depends on the type and severity of the immune deficiency. In the case of severe immune deficiencies, the first symptoms often appear in the first weeks and months after birth. In the case of milder innate immune diseases, the symptoms can initially be masked by the mother’s so-called nest protection and breastfeeding. The nest protection is created by immunoglobulins that are transferred through the placenta to the embryo during pregnancy and birth. Maternal antibodies are also passed on to the infant during breastfeeding. The nest protection is thus positively supported with breast milk. In addition, there are immunodeficiencies that only show up during puberty or in young adults up to the age of 25.

Warning Signs Of Primary Immunodeficiency

Beyond the varied – and thus sometimes very difficult to recognize – symptoms of primary immune deficits, there are at least a number of warning signs that suggest the suspicion of a congenital immune deficiency:

    • Primary immunodeficiencies in first-degree relatives (parents or siblings)
    • Increased susceptibility to serious infections: 2 or more cases of meningitis, bone inflammation, pneumonia, joint inflammation, blood poisoning (sepsis), or sinusitis each year.
    • More than 8 purulent otitis media per year
    • Antibiotic therapy ineffectiveness for more than 2 months
    • Complications after vaccination with life vaccines such as rotaviruses
    • Failure to thrive with no other apparent cause
    • Noticeable skin and mucous membrane diseases such as persistent skin fungal infections or skin inflammation (erythema) in newborns and infants
    • Chronic diarrhea.

Causes

Primary immune deficiencies are innate, so the cause is a defective genetic material. How these DNA defects arise is largely unclear. The World Health Organization divides primary immunodeficiencies into 8 groups according to their causes:

    • Combined immunodeficiency, which affects several parts of the immune system
    • Immunodeficiencies, which are mainly characterized by a lack of antibodies
    • Immunodeficiencies associated with defective T lymphocytes
    • Other well-defined immunodeficiency syndromes
    • Immune defects with lymphoproliferative disease
    • Immunodeficiency associated with or as a result of another disease
    • Complement defects
    • Defects of the granulocytes and macrophages

Diagnosis

Most primary immune deficiencies are difficult to diagnose and often take many months or years to diagnose. First of all, this is due to the fact that the symptoms are usually very unspecific. In the case of recurring severe infections (see also warning signs), the suspicion could be obvious. However, many immune defects are so rare that doctors are barely aware of these rare diseases. For recurring severe infections and other warning signs, the diagnosis should therefore be made at an Immune Diseases Center.

Treatment

Primary immunodeficiency therapy is primarily medicated and depends on the type and severity of the immunodeficiency.

Acute drug therapy and prophylaxis

In the case of minor immune deficits, it can be sufficient to treat acute infections with antibiotics, antiviral agents, or antifungal agents, as in a healthy person. As a rule, children with weak immune deficiencies also receive these drugs permanently in order to better prevent possible infections.

Antibody replacement treatment

Many immune deficiencies cause a lack of antibodies. These immunoglobulins can be replaced by drug therapy. Depending on the type of antibody, they are injected under the skin at regular intervals or given as an infusion. Antibody replacement treatment is usually necessary for life.

Stem cell transplant

A stem cell transplant may be the method of choice for certain, particularly severe immunodeficiencies. During this procedure, stem cells are transferred from the bone marrow of healthy donors. This therapy option is by no means available to all those affected. There are several reasons for this. First of all, not all forms of primary immune deficiency can be treated with a stem cell transplant. Then children or adolescents must be in a state of health that allows the stressful transplant procedure at all. In addition, a donor has to be found whose stem cells match the patient. The decision about the possibility, benefits, and risks of a stem cell transplant can therefore only be made on an individual basis.

Gene therapy

Gene therapeutic approaches for the treatment of primary immune deficiencies are currently still at an experimental stage. The aim of the experiments is to replace the faulty section of the genetic material with healthy genes for immune cells.

Forecast

A general prognosis of primary immunodeficiencies is not possible in view of the diversity of the diseases. Basically, however, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the chances of survival. Many forms of antibody deficiency can be treated by immunoglobulins in such a way that life expectancy equals that of healthy people.

Prevention

Since primary immune deficiencies are innate, these diseases cannot be reliably prevented.

Risk Groups: Who Is Most At Risk From Covid-19?

Risk Groups: Old People, Men, Smokers And People With Chronic Diseases

The new lung disease COVID-19 is mild for most people, and the SARS-CoV-2 infection sometimes even goes unnoticed. However, very severe courses with a fatal outcome are also possible. It is not currently possible to say exactly who is most likely to be affected by these severe courses in individual cases. However, some risk groups can be clearly identified.

High-risk group of people with chronic diseases

The risk of a complicated course of COVID-19 is particularly high in people with chronic diseases. In the case of lung diseases such as asthma or COPD, the explanation for this is obvious: In people with diseases of the respiratory tract, healthy lung function is already impaired and the lungs are therefore particularly vulnerable.

The high-risk groups also include people with diseases that at first glance have little to do with the lungs or breathing. These are mainly people with heart failure, high blood pressure, diabetes, cancer, liver disease, or chronic kidney disease.

Why do the chronically ill belong to the high-risk group?

The chronically ill belong to the high-risk groups primarily because they are usually already burdened by the underlying disease. In the event of an infection with SARS-CoV-2 or a COVID-19 illness, the physical resources are not fully available to them as with a healthy person. In addition, some common chronic diseases indirectly affect healthy lung function. Heart failure, for example, increases the risk of pulmonary hypertension. Atherosclerosis promotes circulatory disorders, which in turn can put a strain on the cardiovascular system.

According to the Robert Koch Institute, according to the current state of research, young people with chronic diseases also belong to the high-risk group of people with an increased risk of severe disease progression.

Risk Increases With Combinations Of Risk Factors

A particularly susceptible high-risk group is made up of people who have a combination of risk factors. According to the RKI, this applies, for example, to older people with an underlying disease compared to one of the risk factors (age or underlying disease). Old and young people with several underlying diseases are particularly hard hit.

Risk From Covid-19

High-risk group of people with sick or suppressed immune systems

People whose immune systems are not functioning or not functioning adequately are particularly at risk from COVID-19. This does not mean people with general immune deficiencies, but people with serious diseases of the immune system such as HIV, primary immunodeficiencies, or secondary immunodeficiencies.

Primary and secondary immunodeficiencies

Primary immunodeficiencies are congenital disorders of the immune system. Medicine now knows more than 300 different clinical pictures, many of which are among the rare diseases.

  • Secondary immunodeficiencies are permanent disorders of the immune system that are only acquired in the course of life. Common causes of such immune deficiencies are, for example, cancer, side effects of drugs, or metabolic disorders such as diabetes.

High-Risk Group Of People Taking Immunosuppressive Drugs

Another high-risk group is people in whom the immune system is suppressed or weakened by drugs. So-called immunosuppressants such as glucocorticoids (in colloquial language cortisone) are used, among other things, after transplants or for autoimmune diseases. Chronic asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, or rheumatic diseases are other areas of application for drugs that suppress the immune system.

The Risk Increases For Everyone Aged 50 And Over And For Smokers

SARS-CoV-2 does not only infect high-risk groups. According to the Robert Koch Institute, the risk of a severe course of COVID-19 increases from the age of 50 and increases steadily thereafter. This is mainly due to the fact that the immune system becomes weaker over the years and is less able to fight pathogens such as viruses. There is also the possibility that the disease is recognized late in people with a weakened immune system. Why is that?

Fever is the classic symptom of infection. However, fever is not caused by pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 but is a result of the reaction of the immune system. If the immune system is weak, a fever may be low or it may not occur. This increases the likelihood that infections such as COVID-19 will be discovered late and may have advanced.

Male mortality is nearly twice that of women

According to the RKI, the risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 is about the same for women and men at 49 to 51 percent at the current state of knowledge (beginning of April). On the other hand, mortality seems to be significantly higher in men than in women. Of the 732 deaths with corona infection (as of April 1), 65 percent were men. An evaluation of the COVID-19 cases in China had previously also come to the conclusion that the mortality rate for men is almost twice as high as that for women.

The reasons for the higher mortality are not yet known. The virologist Alexander Kekulé names the overall poorer health of older men (compared to women of the same age) as a possible cause.

Even Young And Healthy People Shouldn’t Think They Are Safe

So far, it is not known how the individual risk of COVID-19 disease can be reliably assessed. After numbers at the beginning of the pandemic had suggested that young and healthy adults might have a rather small risk of severe disease, the number of those affected is now increasing in this group as well. According to the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) as of mid-March, a fifth of COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital were between 20 and 44 years old. According to the study, almost half required intensive care treatment. Young, healthy people must therefore under no circumstances feel safe.

Irritant Contact Dermatitis Journal

Safety and efficacy of topical calcineurin inhibitors in the treatment of childhood atopic dermatitis. American Journal of Clinical Dermatology….Allergo Journal International. Allergo J Int. … The likelihood of developing irritant contact dermatitis rises with the intensity and duration of exposure to the irritant. Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is an inflammation of skin caused by direct cytotoxic effects of chemical, physical or biological agents on epidermal cells …Irritant contact dermatitis cases reached 85% in the workplace. This is caused by direct exposure to chemicals, lack of attention to hygiene, sanitation and the lack​ …

Occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD) is still a occupational health problem. … occupational irritan contact dermatitis, working period, history of disease, personal … Journal of Dermatology & Dermatologic Surgery..Background: Allergic contact dermatitis is a type of contact dermatitis, whose prevalence tends to increase every year. Patch test is an important diagnostic test to …Irritant contact dermatitis is a result of activated innate immune response to various external stimuli and consists of complex interplay which involves skin barrier …Bioscientia Medicina: Journal of Biomedicine & Translational Research. Prevention of … Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is an inflammatory epidermal disorder.

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ICD can co-exist with atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Patients with AD and ACD may have a lower inflammatory …Patch tests are the gold standard for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis.27 Irritant contact dermatitis is usually a diagnosis of exclusion when …Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is the most common form of contact dermatitis. … The diagnosis of irritant contact dermatitis is often clinical and involves a comprehensive history and examination, as well as the exclusion of … Journal and Issue. Acute irritant contact dermatitis – often the result of a single … Journal Compilation Ó 2009 British Association of Dermatologists • British Journal ..Dermatitis of surrounding skin may complicate hard-to-heal leg ulcers, delaying wound healing. The coexistence of hard-to-heal leg ulcers and irritant or allergic contact dermatitis may… … Journal of Wound Care …

Contact Dermatitis Irritant and Allergic

Dermatitis is the medical term for skin inflammation (irritation). Contact dermatitis is an allergic or irritant reaction that causes painful or itchy skin …
‎Symptoms and Causes · ‎Diagnosis and Tests · ‎Management and Treatment. The irritant CD is a nonspecific skin response to direct chemical skin damage and/​with releasing inflammatory mediators, while allergic CD is a delayed hypersensitivity …Irritant contact dermatitis, which accounts for 80% of all contact dermatitis, doesn’t involve an allergic reaction by the immune system. · Allergic contact dermatitis is​ …The substance could be one of the thousands of known allergens and irritants. Some of these substances may cause irritant contact dermatitis …Read about contact dermatitis, a type of eczema that causes inflammation of the … usually occurs within a few hours or days of exposure to an irritant or allergen. Contact dermatitis is a skin rash or irritation caused by touching something. It could be an allergic reaction or skin damage.

contact dermatitis irritant and allergic

The transition metal nickel is a very common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (​ACD). In the general population, adults with hand eczema have a high incidence​ …CD results from contact with environmental substances that elicit an allergic and​/or irritant response. High clinical suspicion of allergic contact dermatitis …
of drugs, also increases penetration of other chemicals and antigens, and hence may exacerbate irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Th…Another difference is that allergic dermatitis can occur in other places on the body that did not come in contact with the allergy-causing material. How does irritant …
Contact dermatitis is inflammation of the skin caused by direct contact with irritants (irritant contact dermatitis) or allergens (allergic contact dermatitis). Symptoms …Irritants and allergies cause contact dermatitis. Irritant contact dermatitis is a skin reaction from irritation to something touching your skin, including Chemicals …There are two main types of work-related contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Irritant contact dermatitis. An …The substances may be Irritants. These cause direct skin irritation and inflammation. They are the most common cause of contact dermatitis. Allergens. These … With irritant dermatitis, the symptoms are usually limited to the skin that made direct contact with the irritant, whereas allergic contact dermatitis …

Irritant Contact Dermatitis Treatment

What is the treatment of contact irritant dermatitis? · Emollient creams · Topical steroids · Antibiotics for secondary infection (usually flucloxacillin or erythromycin​). The definitive treatment of irritant contact dermatitis is the identification and removal of any potential causal agents. For hand irritant contact … Irritant contact dermatitis is a frequent problem in healthcare workers, owing to frequent hand washing. The best antimicrobial efficacy can be …To treat contact dermatitis successfully, you need to identify and avoid the cause of your reaction. If you can avoid the offending substance, the …Treatment · Cyclosporine is currently the drug of the first choice in the treatment of severe, therapy-resistant atopic dermatitis in adults, an indication

irritant contact dermatitis treatment

Treatment / Management — Chronic phase: Lichenification. Hands are the common site of contact allergic dermatitis. No pathognomonic clinical …
Further treatments · phototherapy – where the affected area of skin is exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light to help improve its appearance · immunosuppressant therapy …Localized acute allergic contact dermatitis lesions are successfully treated with mid- or high-potency topical steroids, such as triamcinolone 0.1% …Read about contact dermatitis, a type of eczema that causes inflammation of the skin … See a GP if you have persistent, recurrent or severe symptoms of contact dermatitis. … an irritant – a substance that directly damages the outer layer of skin​ …Patients typically present complaining of a burning or stinging early in the course of irritant contact dermatitis. · As the irritation becomes chronic and the skin …Treatment · applying anti-itch ointments to the infected skin · taking an oatmeal bath (or similar) · taking antihistamine drugs · avoiding scratching the infected area to …Treatment includes removal of the offending substance, cool compresses, potential glucocorticoids ( clobetasol cream or ointment or triamcinalone 0.1% cream or …
Acute irritant dermatitis: Acute onset often after …
Traumatic irritant dermatitis: Slowly developing …
Delayed acute irritant dermatitis: Delayed onset, …
Irritation reaction: Acute, often multiple exposure…

 

 

Contact Allergy

Skin irritation, rashes, and itching can be signs of skin or contact allergy. If those affected come into contact with the decisive allergen, the skin usually reacts within a few minutes. An allergy test by the doctor can confirm the suspected diagnosis and determine appropriate therapy. A contact allergy is caused by the contact of an allergenic stimulus (allergen) with the skin. Allergic contact dermatitis, another name for contact allergy, is caused by substances that come into direct contact with the skin. Contact allergies also include sun allergies. The allergic reaction (hypersensitivity) of the skin can also manifest itself as hives (urticaria).

Symptoms

The symptoms of contact allergy show up at the point where the allergenic substance has acted, but can later “spread”. The hands are most often affected, but other parts of the body (feet, face, skin under the bra or button) can also be affected. The skin irritation leads to redness, blistering, oozing, and crusting. These symptoms of contact allergy are mostly associated with itching. If the contact eczema persists for a long time, the skin flakes and thickens. Allergic eczema usually occurs within minutes, less often in 1 to 4 days after contact with the triggering substance. An allergy test can be used to find out which substances the body is allergic to.

Symptoms Of Chronic Contact Allergy

Chronic skin changes can be observed if contact allergies repeatedly occur in the same area over the years. The skin becomes coarser (lichenification) and excessively cornified (hyperkeratosis). In addition, cracks (fissures) – sometimes deep – develop in the skin.

Causes

As with allergies as a whole, the exact causes of contact allergies have not been unequivocally researched. The course of the allergic reaction, however, does. A detailed description can be found under Allergies. In a nutshell: In the case of an allergic reaction, the body’s own defense system, the immune system, overshoots its target. It fights supposed “enemies” and thereby triggers allergic symptoms. In the case of contact allergy, the immune system reacts to stimuli that act on the skin. Stimuli or substances that often trigger a contact allergy are:

    • Metals such as nickel or chrome (trouser buttons, belt buckles, jewelry)
    • Leather, rubber
    • externally applied drugs, e.g. B. Ointments containing antibiotics
    • Detergents and cleaning agents
    • cosmetics
    • Colorings and preservatives
    • plants

Examination

If the symptoms of a contact allergy appear in the mouth and face area or in the lining of the throat or larynx, you should consult a doctor. Likewise, breathing difficulties, severe diarrhea, or a disturbed general condition with fever, nausea, or dizziness accompany the allergic reaction. It is also useful to see a doctor if contact eczema does not improve or if you do not know the cause of a persistent rash. The doctor may do an allergy test to confirm the suspected diagnosis. Once the allergen has been identified, treatment can begin.

Contact Allergy

Treatment

So-called antihistamines are mainly used in the drug treatment of contact allergies. These are active ingredients such as azelastine, loratadine, levocabastine, clemastine, or cetirizine. Antihistamines inhibit the activity of histamine. This in turn is a messenger substance that significantly influences the allergic reaction. Severe cases of contact eczema are treated with cortisone. Depending on the location and severity of the contact dermatitis, the medication is administered as a plaster, ointment, or tablet.

Self-Help With Contact Allergy

The most effective form of self-help with contact allergy is to avoid contact with allergens. So if you are allergic to costume jewelry with nickel, it is better not to wear it anymore – not even for once. Or if you have an allergy to preservatives, you can use make-up from the health food store or pharmacy.

You can get ointments and tablets with the antihistamines already mentioned against the itching of contact allergies without a prescription in the pharmacy.

Prevention

The first piece of advice for preventing contact allergies is: Avoid allergens! The following tips will help:

    • Wash new clothes before wearing them for the first time.
    • Avoid using cosmetics or perfumes when sunbathing (exception: sunscreen).
    • When working with chemicals (e.g. cleaning agents, paints), it is best to wear PVC gloves and cotton gloves underneath.
    • Do not wear costume jewelry with nickel or chrome on your skin.
    • Use allergy-tested skin cleansers and cosmetics.
    • Care for endangered skin areas with ointments or creams.

Bipolar Personality Disorder Test

People with bipolar disorder experience intense mood changes that can last for weeks or more. Use this bipolar disorder test to find out if your symptoms mean …This test assumes that you have already had at least one episode of depression in your life, and will give an indication as to whether you are experiencing the most …Your life doesn’t have to be this way. Find out if you are just having a tough time or may have a depressive disorder, which is a treatable medical condition. Take …Signs of Bipolar Disorder · High levels of energy · Excessive, rapid, and sometimes incoherent speaking · Grandiosity and an increased sense of self-esteem …The bipolar disorder self-test asks a few questions to determine the possibility of bipolar disorder. Please note, results are not a diagnosis. What’s the screening test for bipolar disorder like? … Current screening tests for bipolar disorder don’t perform well. The most common report is the Mood Disorder …
Bipolar Depression Test. 5 minutes. Feel as though you’re on an emotional roller coaster? Take this quiz to find out whether Bipolar Depression may be …This 12-question bipolar quiz is confidential and uses criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders to help you …

Bipolar Personality Disorder Test

Treatment: Most people with bipolar disorder need lifelong treatment to keep their condition managed. This usually includes medicine — usually …What tests will the doctor use to make a bipolar diagnosis? … Your doctor may have you fill out a mood questionnaire or checklist to help guide the …BPD misdiagnosis may occur due to the similarity of the symptoms it shares with other mental health conditions. These include: bipolar disorder …Bipolar disorder, also called manic-depressive disorder, is an extremely common mental health condition. If you have bipolar depression, you are not alone. Although bipolar disorder is a lifelong condition, you can manage your mood swings and other symptoms by following a treatment plan. In most …

Types of Bipolar Disorder Test

Our online bipolar test is free, quick, confidential, and scientifically validated. … any of your blood relatives had manic-depressive illness or bipolar disorder?
Find out if you are just having a tough time or may have a depressive disorder, which is a treatable medical condition. Take the Depression and Bipolar Test and​ …
Types and symptoms — Current screening tests for bipolar disorder don’t perform well. The most common report is the Mood Disorder Questionnaire
This test assumes that you have already had at least one episode of depression in your life, and will give an indication as to whether you are experiencing the most …

types of bipolar disorder test

Learn all about bipolar disorder with help from Talkspace. Explore what bipolar disorder is, common symptoms, causes, types, and treatment …The bipolar disorder self-test asks a few questions to determine the possibility of bipolar disorder. Please note, results are not a diagnosis. People with bipolar disorder experience intense mood changes that can last for weeks or more. Use this bipolar disorder test to find out if your symptoms mean …types of Bipolar Disorders. Bipolar disorder, as discussed in this quiz, is often characterized by extreme moods, they will often come in waves or episodes, the …Bipolar disorder is a lifelong condition, so treatment aims to manage symptoms. Treatment options include Medications. Pharmacist …They can help you navigate your new diagnosis and find the best treatment option. Symptoms that lead to a diagnosis. If you’re suffering from any kind of mental …There are three types of bipolar disorder. All three … Although the symptoms may vary over time, bipolar disorder usually requires lifelong treatment. Following a …

 

Bipolar Affective Disorder Treatment Guidelines

American Psychiatric Association Treatment of patients with bipolar disorder (​2002) Guideline Watch (2005) British Association for Psychopharmacology.
history of mania or hypomania, the psychiatrist should refer to the APA Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder (2).
The guidelines cover the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, clinical management, and strategies for the use of medicines in the short-term treatment of episodes, relapse …Clinical practice recommendations . … Pharmacological interventions for acute episodes of bipolar depression that could not be included in the network …

bipolar affective disorder treatment guidelines

Bipolar disorders are characterized by alternating episodes of mania or hypomania and depression or mixtures of manic and depressive features. Bipolar …
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic, disabling, and heterogeneous condition of major relevance, whose treatment needs to be considered separately through the​ …
Guidance on the clinical management of depressive and bipolar disorders, specifically focusing on diagnosis and treatment strategies.