Eat And Drink Properly Before Sleep

You disturb your sleep with a heavy meal in the evening. Easily digestible food belongs on the table in the evening. With our tips for the right food and drink in the evening, you will make falling asleep and staying asleep easier. Digestive sleep after a large meal is a widespread habit in many cultures.

Eating actually makes you tired – because the body needs energy for digestion. This energy is then not available for activity. But as beneficial as digestive sleep maybe, an afternoon nap can aggravate sleep problems. And even if lavish food makes you tired, it disturbs your night’s sleep. This also applies to stimulating drinks with caffeine or alcohol. If you want to sleep well, you should eat and drink the right thing in the afternoon at the latest.

No Caffeine After 4 p.m.

If you have problems falling asleep, you should avoid stimulating drinks such as coffee and cola or energy drinks relatively early in the day. Caffeine and guarana, which are contained in many energy drinks, only break down very slowly in the body. You should therefore refrain from drinking such drinks at least 4 hours before going to bed. By the way: black tea and green tea also contain caffeine.

Alcohol Disrupts Night Sleep

One of the common misconceptions about healthy sleep is that alcohol promotes sleep. Admittedly, many people fall asleep better if, for example, they drink a beer or a glass of red wine in the evening. Nevertheless, the breakdown of alcohol disturbs the nightly recovery processes, influences the flow of sleep phases, and promotes sleep disorders. Getting in the mood for the night with herbal teas Teas made from herbs or medicinal plants are particularly good drinks in the evening. Whether chamomile, fennel, hops, valerian, or other plants and plant mixtures: You have a large selection in which there is something for almost everyone.

Eat And Drink Properly Before Sleep

Don’t Eat Hard In The Evening

In order not to burden your sleep unnecessarily, you should preferably eat lightly in the evening. The simple rule of thumb applies the later, the easier. There should be about 2 to 3 hours between going to bed and your last meal. If you go further apart, you could get hungry again – and this disturbs sleep as well as overeating.

Easily Digestible Food Promotes Sleep

Lean meat, low-fat milk, and spices that are not too hot are recommended for a light dinner. You should avoid flatulent foods such as fresh wholemeal bread or legumes in the evening. White bread, pasta, potatoes or fruit are more suitable. Instead of fried French fries and pork schnitzel, you prefer turkey breast and low-fat dairy products for better sleep. Dairy products contain sleep-promoting tryptophan, as do dates and fish. Vitamin B 6 also promotes sleep. This vitamin is found in bananas and many leaf salads, among other things.

The Bedtime Treat

From the point of view of sleep researchers and doctors, a little sweet in the evening is allowed – sometimes even desired. A bar of chocolate, a cup of warm cocoa, a few cookies, or a small portion of sweet fruit influence the blood sugar level in such a way that it is easier for us to fall asleep. In addition, sweet things have a calming effect in small doses – without any risk of addiction and without disturbing the sleep process, as is the case with alcohol.

Use Sleeping Pills Properly

Taking sleeping pills is sometimes unavoidable – and a gift of blessing. But after a short time, they cause addiction. Read how to use sleeping pills correctly – so that sleeping pills don’t become the cause of sleep disorders. As paradoxical as it may sound, sleeping pills are one of the most common reasons for sleep disorders. Because almost all sleeping pills intervene deeply in the chemistry of sleep and are often also addictive. But sometimes sleeping pills are the drug of choice. However, it is important that you use sleeping pills properly.

Always Take Sleeping Pills For A Short Time

The most important guideline for the correct use of sleeping pills: Always take sleeping pills for as short a time as possible. You should never use sleeping pills for more than a week without medical advice. Depending on the type of medication, for example, prescription sleeping pills such as benzodiazepines can quickly develop into addiction. But over-the-counter sleeping pills can also be addictive. If your doctor keeps issuing sleep medication prescriptions without asking, it is best to contact another doctor to treat any sleep disorders.

Sleep Pills And Addiction

According to the German Central Office for Addiction Risks, around half of the users of sleeping pills develop an addiction to sleeping pills. In Germany alone, that is 400,000 sleep pill addicts every year. In total, around 2 million people are considered dependent on sleeping pills. About half of these people use the commonly prescribed benzodiazepines. Women are particularly susceptible to drug addiction and sleeping pill abuse. Numerous studies suggest that sleeping pills can significantly reduce life expectancy.

Use Sleeping Pills Properly

Sleep Pills Only If Verifiably Necessary

Sleep pills, and especially chemical sleep pills, are only suitable for self-treatment within very narrow limits. If, for example, you cannot sleep for understandable reasons such as jet lag or after an emotionally moving or stressful experience, a sleeping pill can be a blessing. Using sleeping pills to help you sleep despite your nervousness before an exam, on the other hand, is not a good idea. Almost all sleeping pills can work well into the day and severely limit physical and mental performance.

Big Market For Sleeping Pills

Despite the narrow limits of self-treatment, the market for over-the-counter sleeping pills and tranquilizers has been growing for years – even against the general trend. In 2012, Germans spent almost 200 million euros on non-prescription drugs for restlessness and sleep problems. Around 20 million packs of prescription benzodiazepines and similar substances went over the pharmacy counters (estimated turnover: 300 million euros).

Always See a Doctor If You Have Trouble Sleeping

If you have persistent sleep disorders, you should always contact an expert. This can be your family doctor or a psychologist. The sooner a sleep disorder is recognized, the more effective the treatment will be. Fortunately, most sleep disorders can be treated well. For otherwise healthy people, sleep specialists usually use non-drug methods such as sleep restriction and other behavioral therapeutic measures such as sleep rituals and a regular sleep rhythm.

Pregnancy Test: Hormonal Evidence of Pregnancy

After a fertilized egg has implanted in the uterus, the concentration of the hormone HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) in the blood and urine increases sharply. A pregnancy test can measure this increased concentration of HCG in the urine. Modern pregnancy tests can indicate pregnancy immediately after the absence of the period or even 10 days after sexual intercourse.

Pregnancy Test

The procedure is slightly different for the individual tests. The concentration of HCG hormones is highest in the morning urine immediately after getting up, but most tests can be carried out at any time of the day. In modern tests, a test stick or test disc is simply moistened with urine and after a short time, the result can be read. The test consists of a control field, which changes color to indicate whether the test was carried out correctly, and a result field, which changes color only if you are pregnant. Slight discoloration in the right place in the results field also indicates pregnancy. However, the test should then be repeated after a few days. Even if the test was negative but there is no menstrual period, the test should be repeated.

Young preganant woman expecting a baby happy parent

When To See A Doctor

When the pregnancy test is positive. If the test is negative but there is no bleeding. What your doctor can do:

    • The doctor can detect HCG hormone in the blood during pregnancy.
    • The doctor can use ultrasound to determine whether you are pregnant.

Workout Against Tension

Tension Trap At The Desk

Among classic “desk criminals” who do their work every day in front of the computer in the office, it is rather the exception that they have never had neck, shoulder or back tension. These annoying tensions haunt most of those affected for years and, if ignored, can lead to hardening and restricted mobility in the long term.

Exercise and the correct sitting position are good ways out of this tension trap. But just sport is not the solution here either, because those affected should make sure that the problem areas are also mobilized. Exercise generally relaxes the muscles, but jogging, for example, is not suitable for specifically targeting neck or shoulder tension. An effective means of counteracting this is mobilizing the affected areas. In the following, therefore, exercises are presented on the one hand that comfortably and quickly loosen and stretch the areas. There are also helpful tips on how to achieve a good sitting position in front of the screen.

    1. Relaxation of the neck

The starting point for this exercise is an upright, sitting position. Hold on to the chair seat with both hands. Then slowly tilt your head to the left so that the ear moves towards your left shoulder and hold this position for 3 breaths. Gently pull your right shoulder downwards.

Then change sides. Repeat the exercise 3 times.

More exercises:

    • Bring both arms forward. Pull your shoulders forward as well.
    • Then cross your arms behind your head. The neck remains long. Slowly push your head against the resistance of your hands.
    1. Relief Of The Shoulder Girdle And Thoracic Spine

The starting point for this exercise is an upright, sitting position. Let your arms hang down and relax your hands on your thighs:

Then first lift one shoulder up to your ear while you breathe in. Now let your shoulder fall and breathe out.

Then do the exercise with the other shoulder. The third time, use both shoulders at the same time, inhaling again as you lift and exhale as you lower your shoulders. Repeat the exercise 3 times if possible.

Another exercise:

    • Your arms hang relaxed next to your thighs. Now drop your shoulders forward, twisting your thumbs inward and exhaling. Then pull your shoulders back and straighten your body, twisting your thumbs outward and exhaling again. Finally, let your shoulders fall forward, turning your thumbs inward again and exhaling again. Also repeat this exercise 3 times if possible.

Workout Against Tension

    1. Relief of the lumbar spine

Please sit on the front edge of the chair. The hands lie loosely on the thighs. Now please make your back as round as possible and breathe out. Then make a slight hollow back and breathe in. Please repeat this exercise 5 times.

More exercises:

    • Please sit back on the front edge of the chair. The arms hang loosely to the side. Now lift your right foot – hold it for a breath – and then lower it. Then repeat this with your left foot. Repeat this exercise several times (up to 30 times), paying attention to maintaining the upright sitting position.
    • Extend your arms sideways to the floor, palms facing forward. Pull your shoulders back and tense your stomach and buttocks. Hold this tension for 3 breaths. Then let go again. Repeat this exercise 4 times.
    1. Relaxation For Your Face

To relax the face, you must first contract the following muscles and hold them for about 2 breaths. Then release the tension by exhaling and relax for about 5 breaths at a time.

    • Raise the eyebrows.
    • Screw up your eyes.
    • Press your lips together.
    • Make your mouth really wide, like a clown.
    1. Relaxation of the eyes

Rub your palms against each other quickly and vigorously to warm them up.

Now place your palms over your closed eyes so that no light can penetrate. No pressure should be applied.

Please make sure that you do not tense the neck and back muscles. Breathe calmly and evenly. Relax your eyes and enjoy the soothing warm darkness. After 2-3 minutes, take a few deep breaths and take your hands away from your eyes. The light will then blind you for a short time.

Another exercise:

    • Keep your eyes moving. Wander around the screen every now and then and feel the surroundings with your eyes. Try to concentrate on things at the edge of your field of vision, this strengthens your perception.
    1. Exercises To Relax Arms And Hands

The arms are extended in front of the body at shoulder height, with the palms facing down. Now make a fist and bring the fist to your chest. the elbow stays at shoulder height. The arms are then brought forward again in one quick movement. Repeat this exercise 5-10 times.

Extend your arms forward, palms facing the floor, and hold this position. Now bend your wrist so that the palms point towards your body. Then fold your hands up so that the back of your hand is facing your body. Keep your fingers stretched during this exercise. Repeat this exercise 6 times.

More exercises:

    • Extend your arms forward long. Spread your fingers wide apart. Now make a fist. Then spread your fingers wide apart again. Please repeat several times.
    • Frequently let your arms hang down relaxed and then shake out your arms, hands and fingers vigorously for 5 seconds.

Typical Symptoms Of Sore Throat

Symptoms

The reddened lining of the throat, scratching and pain in the throat, difficulty swallowing, and fever are the typical symptoms of sore throat. Often, as a sign of an alarming immune system, the lymph nodes in the lower jaw and neck are swollen. In the case of tonsillitis (the technical term is angina tonsillaris or tonsillitis), there are also swollen and reddened or even ulcerated tonsils. If the larynx or vocal cords are inflamed, there is also hoarseness.

A scratchy, swollen throat is often associated with a cold or flu. In many cases, there are also annoying swallowing difficulties and hoarseness. You can find out more about the causes and treatment of sore throats here.

It often begins with a scratchy throat or difficulty swallowing: sore throats announce themselves. Most often, a sore throat is a symptom of a cold, flu, or other respiratory infection. Typically, a sore throat will go away with the underlying viral infection. Antibiotics help if the cause of infection is bacterial, such as tonsillitis.

Causes

A sore throat can be a symptom of an isolated infection caused by a virus or bacteria. Most often, a sore throat is a symptom of a cold, flu, or other respiratory infection. The germs cause inflammation of the mucous membrane in the throat area. Depending on where the pathogens settle, a distinction is made between inflammation of the lining of the throat (pharyngitis), inflammation of the vocal cords or larynx (laryngitis), or tonsillitis or angina tonsillaris. Mixed forms also occur.

In addition to bacteria and viruses, sore throats can also be caused by overuse of the voice and irritation of the airways (for example from chemicals, tobacco smoke, or dust). Other diseases such as mumps, scarlet fever, or Pfeifferscher’s glandular fever also cause sore throats.

Sore throats also occur due to esophageal or stomach disorders. The backflow of stomach contents through the esophagus causes heartburn, which is often accompanied by a sore throat.

Sore Throat

Causes Of A Sore Throat At A Glance

    • Cold, flu, angina (tonsillitis)
    • Overuse of the voice by singing, shouting, talking for a long time
    • Irritation of the respiratory tract from chemicals, smoke, or dusty, dry air
    • other diseases, e.g. glandular fever, pseudocroup, mumps, scarlet fever
    • Heartburn from gastric acid reflux
    • very rarely malignant tumors in the throat area.

Treatment

Sore throats usually do not require medical attention. Exceptions: The symptoms are very severe, do not subside after a few days, there are breathing difficulties or there is a suspicion of tonsillitis or other diseases.

Treatment Of A Sore Throat At The Doctor

If a bacterial infection is causing a sore throat, your doctor will prescribe antibiotics to fight the bacteria that cause disease. Antibiotics do not help with viral infections. Here the symptoms can be alleviated with home remedies and over-the-counter medicines.

Home Remedies For A Sore Throat

The following home remedies have proven to be particularly effective for helping yourself with a sore throat.

    • drink a lot
    • keep warm, especially your throat and chest, but do not sweat
    • keep the room air moist in winter
    • Avoid irritants, do not smoke
    • Gargling or inhaling herbal ingredients from arnica, Icelandic moss, chamomile flowers, thyme, linden flowers or sage leaves.

Over-The-Counter Drugs For A Sore Throat

    • Disinfecting gargle solutions, mouth sprays, or lozenges with active ingredients such as hexetidine or cetylpyridinium chloride have anti-inflammatory effects.
    • In the case of slight reddening and pain, anti-inflammatory lozenges or rinsing solutions (e.g. chamomile or sage extracts for rinsing, tablets containing dexpanthenol for sucking) are effective.
    • Lozenges or sprays with superficial anesthetics help with pain and difficulty swallowing.
    • In the case of more severe pain, short-term anti-inflammatory pain pills for ingestion with acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen or paracetamol, which at the same time reduce fever, are useful.
    • The local application of antibiotics usually does not make sense.

Prevention

It is only possible to a limited extent to prevent a sore throat. Basically, the same recommendations apply that you can read under respiratory infections and colds.

Homeopathy

Homeopathy is viewed as a stimulus therapy in which the body is given incentives to heal a disease on its own by taking certain, highly diluted remedies. The term “homeopathy” is made up of the Greek words “homoios” (similar) and “pathos” (suffering). In homeopathy, the disease is mainly treated by means that work according to the so-called similarity principle. It is based on the observation that a substance that causes certain complaints in humans or animals can also cure the same (or similar) complaints. Within homeopathic teaching, there are different directions with different conceptions of how the homeopathic principles should be implemented.

Origin And Philosophy Of Homeopathy

The principle of similarity occurs in different cultures and also in the writings of the ancient Greeks, for example with Hippocrates. The similarity principle was also taken up, again and again, later in the course of medical history. The German doctor, pharmacist, and chemist Dr. Med. Habil. However, Samuel Hahnemann (1755 – 1843) was the first to systematize this principle and use it as the basis for a new direction in medicine. His “Organon” and other publications are still used in practice by homeopaths today.

Hahnemann developed homeopathy on the basis of a large number of self-experiments with medicinal products. His first self-experiment took place with cinchona bark, which was used to treat intermittent fever (malaria). Hahnemann took a large amount of cinchona bark without having a fever himself and developed a fever. After several further attempts with different drugs, he came to the conclusion that substances that cause certain symptoms (e.g. fever) in healthy people can cure the same symptoms (e.g. febrile colds) in sick people. According to Hahnemann, the organism of a sick person receives an impulse from the drug to use its defenses in a targeted manner against certain symptoms of the disease.

The principle of homeopathy is based on these findings: «Similia similibus curentur» (the like is cured by the like). Hahnemann discovered in further theoretical and practical investigations with medicinal products that the effectiveness of the substances changes due to their concentration. Diluted drugs often showed a stronger effect than the undiluted basic substance. Thereupon he developed a special production and dosage theory, the potentization process and the principle of the smallest dose.

Manufacture Of Homeopathic Remedies

When producing homeopathic remedies, one proceeds according to a homeopathic drug book. The starting substance is gradually diluted in a certain ratio with water, alcohol or lactose and potentized after each dilution step by shaking or rubbing. Today, three different dilution series are used in homeopathy: D, C, and LM. The only difference between the D and C series is the dilution ratio:

D = decimal power

Dilution ratio: 1: 9 (Latin decem = 10)

In the D series, one part of Vorpotenz (for example D1) is mixed with nine parts of thinner and then shaken vigorously at least ten times (liquids) or rubbed in a mortar for an hour (powder). The result is a D2, which you dilute again tenfold and potentiate to produce the D3.

C = centesimal power

Dilution ratio: 1:99 (Latin centum = 100)

In the C series, one part of pre-potency (for example C1) is mixed with ninety-nine parts of diluent and then potentized.

LM or Q power:

Each dilution step corresponds to a ratio between starting substance and diluent of 1: 50,000.

Hahnemann developed the third series of potentiations, called LM or Q potency, in the last years of his life. LM potencies are produced using a special, very complex process. Each dilution step corresponds to a ratio between the starting substance and the diluent of 1: 50,000. The higher the number after the D, C or LM, the stronger and longer-lasting the effect of the homeopathic medicine.

Powers above D30 or C30 are called high potencies. These are mainly used by homeopaths to treat chronic ailments.

Homeopathy

Application Of Homeopathy

Homeopathic remedies are mainly supplied in the form of globules, drops, tablets, and ointments. Some doctors also give homeopathic medicines through a syringe. Before a new homeopathic drug is used to treat sick people, it is only tried on healthy test subjects (drug testing on healthy people). These write down the physical and psychological changes that occur after taking the product. These changes indicate which symptoms in sick people could be alleviated with the same remedy. For example, homeopathically diluted bee venom (apis) is used to relieve symptoms caused by a bee sting, provided that it is a pink swelling that is warm to the touch and the pain is relieved by applying ice. Another simple example is remedies made from homeopathically diluted onion extracts. These are given off in the case of a cold, in which the eyes water and the nose runny.

In the case of complex diseases, the homeopath needs a lot of experience to find the right remedy. The active ingredients used in homeopathy mainly consist of natural substances such as plants, minerals, and animal substances. “Classically”, that is, according to Hahnemann’s teaching, working homeopaths administer so-called “individual remedies” to their patients. Individual remedies consist of a single basic substance, for example, a mineral, an animal substance, or an extract from a flower, and they contain a whole range of ingredients from the plant.

The homeopath recognizes that he has chosen the right remedy for the treatment of his patient, among other things by the so-called «initial worsening» (healing reaction) of the symptoms. This means that the patient’s illness may worsen in the initial phase of treatment. Such initial aggravations are usually more severe, the higher the potency of the administered agent, i.e. the greater the dilution. After the initial deterioration has disappeared, a significant improvement in the state of health can occur within a few days. Mixed preparations made from various individual remedies are mainly used in the treatment of acute illnesses such as flu, runny nose, or indigestion. They are very suitable for self-medication. However, many classic homeopaths reject the administration of mixed preparations.

So that the homeopathic remedies develop their optimal effectiveness, one should observe certain rules when taking them, for example, Homeopathic remedies should be taken as often as necessary and as rarely as possible. The more acute and serious disease is, the more often you should take the remedy. If the symptoms of the disease improve significantly, the homeopathic remedy should no longer be taken. If possible, you should not combine several homeopathic remedies. In the event of a healing reaction, the drug should be discontinued until the reaction has completely disappeared.

Homeopathic Technique

Before each homeopathic treatment, the individual clinical picture must be precisely recorded in a detailed and long conversation. In the initial consultation, the patient describes his symptoms as detailed as possible so that the homeopath can draw conclusions about appropriate homeopathic remedies from the clinical picture. In the case of headaches, for example, a distinction is made between whether the pain is felt as throbbing, pulling, or stabbing, whether the pain tends to subside in the fresh air or in closed rooms, or whether the patient feels the need to lie down to relieve the symptoms. The homeopath chooses a suitable remedy depending on the pain sensation. Further information about the patient will help him with this. He, therefore, asks about the patient’s inclinations, interests, character, and reactions to environmental stimuli. He also takes physical characteristics such as height, weight, and constitution into account when making his assessment.

After the initial consultation, the homeopath looks up the important symptoms in a so-called “repertory”. This look-up is therefore called “repertorisation”. Depending on the nature of the complaints, the repertorization places more emphasis on the physical complaints or on the personality of the patient. In classical homeopathy, the same remedies are not administered to every patient with the same symptoms. Depending on the type of person affected, the treatment is adapted accordingly. For this reason, the first interview plays a crucial role. In contrast to chronic complaints, it is usually much easier to find the right remedy for acute illnesses. The dispensing of homeopathic remedies without considering accompanying symptoms as well as alleviating or worsening influences is not considered a correct homeopathic treatment in the circles of classic homeopaths practicing according to Hahnemann.

Effect Of Homeopathic Remedies

Hahnemann explained the effectiveness of homeopathic remedies by stating that it is not the concentration that is decisive, but the “dynamization” or the release of a force of the substances. This happens during potentization: By shaking the substance several times, the information on the basic substances should be transferred to the diluent, even if no basic substances can be detected materially or chemically. The effect of the diluted basic substances should enable the body to heal its illness with its own strength. In the meantime, many doctors trained in conventional medicine also use homeopathy to treat various diseases, for example:

    • Allergies (but not in the case of life-threatening reactions)
    • Defensive weakness
    • Chronic diseases
    • Psychosomatic illnesses

Side Effects Of Homeopathic Preparations

Today there are around 2500 homeopathic single and mixed preparations available, which are used for many diseases. However, a necessary surgical intervention or the supply of vital substances cannot be replaced by homeopathic therapy. That is why homeopathic remedies are only used as an accompanying therapy in the treatment of serious, acute illnesses.

Laparoscopy

Definition of laparoscopy

As a diagnostic method, it is mainly used for unclear abdominal complaints and when other examinations such as ultrasound or computer tomography did not provide any information. Laparoscopy is a minimally stressful (minimally invasive) procedure that takes place under general anesthesia. Depending on the scope of the examination, the laparoscopy is performed on an outpatient basis or in a hospital and takes about 10 to 30 minutes.

Application Examples For Laparoscopy

    • For women who want to have children, check the patency of the fallopian tubes as well as for sterilization.
    • Examination of the liver, pancreas, spleen, and uterus as well as the stomach and intestines.
    • Taking tissue samples for microscopic examination (biopsy) to assess whether a tumor is benign or malignant.
    • Testicle search

Operative interventions

    • Removal of the gallbladder (laparoscopic cholecystectomy)
    • Removal of kidney cysts
    • Removal of the appendix from the appendix (laparoscopic appendectomy) in appendicitis
    • Removal of the uterus (laparoscopic hysterectomy)
    • Removal of fibroids and islets of endometriosis in endometriosis (growths of the uterine lining)
    • Inguinal hernia surgery
    • Cutting the branches of the 10th cranial nerve (vagus nerve) to reduce gastric acid production in gastric and duodenal ulcers
    • Creation of an artificial intestinal outlet (anus praeter).

Laparoscopy

The course of the laparoscopy

General anesthesia is necessary for laparoscopy. So that the doctor has space and an overview of the abdomen, carbon dioxide is first filled into the abdomen as a gas through a small skin incision with a hollow needle. The laparoscope (instrument with light source and camera) and surgical instruments (e.g. suction devices or forceps) are inserted through further small incisions in the abdominal wall. The camera transmits the recordings to the monitor so that the surgical team can see what is happening in the abdominal cavity.

Before laparoscopy

In order to minimize complications, you should inform the doctor of any pre-existing medical conditions and previous surgeries before the laparoscopy.

After the laparoscopy

You are often allowed to leave the hospital or practice shortly after a laparoscopy. On the day of the operation, it is better not to drive yourself. Use public transport. Better yet, have someone pick you up or take a taxi.

It is generally recommended that you remain under observation for a few hours after the laparoscopy. During this and afterward, you should rest, lie in bed, and, if possible, sleep. A mild pain reliever, such as an agent with the active ingredient ibuprofen, can help against pressure pain in the abdomen. As a rule, the attending physician will give you a recommendation or even give you the medication.

Side Effects Of Laparoscopy

The side effects of laparoscopy can include:

    • Nausea, headache, exhaustion as a result of anesthesia
    • Tenderness and bruising on the abdomen
    • Pain in the shoulders and pelvis
    • Injuries to surrounding organs are very rare.

Coverage of the Laparoscopy

Not all reasons (indications) for laparoscopy are a health insurance benefit. If the doctor has a prescription (i.e. for every medically necessary procedure), the costs are usually covered.

Zinc to Protect Against Respiratory Infections

Sore throat, runny nose, cough, exhaustion, etc. – Colds are among the most common reasons for sick leave. During the current coronavirus pandemic, there is also fear of serious respiratory infections in COVID-19. An adequate supply of zinc can help prevent and alleviate respiratory diseases.

The immune system is a miracle of nature and protects us against innumerable harmful influences every day. To do this, the organism needs important vital substances to defend itself against viruses, bacteria, free radicals, and the like. An essential trace element that our immune system needs is zinc. However, once the stores are empty, the immune system can no longer perform its tasks properly. The result: You become more susceptible to infections and, above all, are more prone to respiratory infections.

Virus Diseases Particularly Affect People With Weak Immune Defenses

In the colder months of the year, virus infections such as colds and flu are high season. Accordingly, our immune system is also working at full speed. Newer strains of viruses, such as the Sars-CoV-2 coronavirus and now also its mutated variants, also put our immune system to a tough test. Because an infection with this multi-organ virus, which mainly affects the respiratory tract, can have serious consequences, especially for people with weak immune defenses or chronic pre-existing diseases (such as cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases or diabetes) as well as for seniors and severe COVID 19 gradients entail.

Zinc Protects Against Virus Diseases

A sufficient supply of the vital trace element zinc can protect against virus diseases. How this works has been shown for various types of viruses. A sufficient supply of zinc prevents, for example, rhinoviruses – the typical pathogens of colds – from sticking to our nasal mucosa1. Cold viruses cannot penetrate our bodies and spread. Even with the currently rampant SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, zinc can prevent viruses from penetrating body cells and inhibit the virus from multiplying2. In the case of coronaviruses, zinc not only shows antivirus effects but can also slow down the excessive inflammatory reaction in COVID-19 and strengthens the airways. There is ample evidence that adequate zinc supplies are beneficial for the prevention and treatment of COVID-192. Current studies also show that an adequate zinc supply can protect against severe COVID-19 courses. The zinc levels of COVID-19 patients are significantly lower compared to healthy volunteers. In an Indian study, COVID-19 patients with a zinc deficiency had a more than the 5-fold increased risk of complications and showed an increased mortality rate3.

Zinc To Protect Against Respiratory Infections

Versatile Effects Of Zinc

The trace element zinc, which is necessary for humans, plays an important role in the defense against pathogens. A zinc deficiency affects the immune system, increases the susceptibility to infectious diseases, delays recovery, and leads to a worse course of infections. In the case of infections, a zinc deficit increases the symptoms, which can lead to excessive inflammation and additional tissue damage. In addition to other immune cells, zinc primarily affects the function of the large phagocytes4,5. The large phagocytes (so-called macrophages) belong to the white blood cells and play an essential role in the elimination of microorganisms such as bacteria etc.

A Polish study indicates that zinc has anti-oxidative as well as anti-inflammatory effects6. In addition to standard therapy, the consumption of zinc is said to be able to reduce the mortality rate from pneumonia7.

Zinc Reduces The Duration Of The Cold

Around two to four times a year, adults in this country are affected by colds. Usually, the disease will be over in about a week. Fresh air, rest, sufficient humidity in the rooms, and hydration in the form of mineral water and tea as well as enough sleep generally promote recovery. This also applies to a diet rich in vital substances. Hot spices such as ginger, chili, curry, horseradish, and mustard not only heat things up, they also have an antimicrobial effect. Freshly cooked chicken soup is also helpful.

Zinc is currently recommended again and again for flu-like infections. Because by adding zinc you can shorten the duration of colds by around 33 percent. Patients with a cold should use zinc within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms8.

Strengthen The Immune System With The Right Substances

There are many remedies for colds. Since most colds are caused by viruses, but antibiotics only work against bacteria, they are usually not suitable. With the so-called CRP rapid test, the doctor can determine within a few minutes whether viruses or bacteria are responsible for the disease and accordingly initiate the right treatment and select the right drug. A few drops of blood and a few minutes waiting time are sufficient for the rapid test. The rapid test can prevent patients suffering from a virus disease from receiving antibiotics unnecessarily.

Zinc is the basic element for a healthy immune system, as it has a positive effect on the body’s own production of important defense cells (T cells). Since it is an essential trace element, the body cannot produce zinc itself and is dependent on it to be supplied through food. This is certainly one reason why zinc deficiency is relatively widespread. The results of the National Consumption Study II show that up to 44 percent of adults in Germany are undersupplied with zinc 10.

 

Shock In The Medical Sense

Definition

Shock in the medical sense is an emergency situation. With this information, you can recognize a shock and provide useful first aid. Colloquially, a shock scares us – or we are paralyzed, shocked for a short time. For medical professionals, however, shock is a serious life-threatening clinical picture. Read more about the causes, symptoms, and first aid here.

What is a Shock?

A shock in the medical sense is a condition in which the oxygen supply to the organs is no longer ensured due to a lack of blood in the bloodstream. This deficiency can have very different causes. The most common are internal and external bleeding (mostly due to injuries) as well as disorders of the fluid balance, which continue to reduce the blood volume. Long-term diarrhea, massive vomiting, or profuse sweating can also cause shock. Doctors refer to these causes as a volume deficiency shock.

If enough blood is no longer pumped into the body in the event of heart failure, those affected also fall into a state of shock. Medics say they get shocked. The technical term for this form of shock is cardiogenic shock.

Symptoms

In order to supply the body with vital oxygen, the heart rate rises to more than 100 beats per minute at the beginning of the shock. Typically, the blood pressure drops sharply (first value below 90 mmHg).

Shock states can also be recognized externally: The skin is pale and usually feels cool and moist. People in shock are often very thirsty. The longer a shock lasts, the shallower the breathing becomes. The blood pressure continues to drop, the pulse is racing and can hardly be felt. Eventually, those affected lose consciousness.

Shock In The Medical Sense

Depending on the cause of the shock, there are other symptoms:

    • in anaphylactic shock: allergic symptoms such as rashes, itching, facial swelling, and shortness of breath
    • in cardiogenic shock: chest tightness and difficulty breathing
    • with septic shock: fever or reduced body temperature below 36 degrees Celsius and bleeding in the skin, the skin is sometimes red and overheated.

Causes

Allergy sufferers know anaphylactic shock as the most severe allergic reaction. Many allergy sufferers carry an emergency kit with them in order to be able to take action against the life-threatening allergy-related shock condition.

In the case of blood poisoning (sepsis), septic shock can develop in the end-stage. This almost always leads to death.

In addition, there are even rarer forms of shock such as neurogenic shock (nerve-related), electric shock (as a result of an electrical accident), endocrine shock (hormone-related), hypoglycemic shock (insulin shock), and orthostatic shock (due to a disturbed vascular and circulatory regulation).

Examination

Recognize shock with the Rekap sample

Rescue workers often use their fingernails to test for shock. But every layperson can do that too. The so-called Rekap-Probe consists of briefly pressing the fingernail into the nail bed. The blood under the nail is squeezed out of the smallest blood vessels, the capillaries, and the skin turns white. If you let go of your fingernail, you pay attention to the time it takes for the skin under the nail to turn red again. If this so-called recapillarization (recap) lasts longer than a second, it can be seen as an indication of poor blood circulation. Of course, this is not a reliable diagnostic criterion, but it is still a guide.

Treatment

First aid: ensure shock positioning and call an emergency doctor

If a shock is suspected, the emergency services should be alerted immediately. Until the emergency vehicle arrives, first aid with so-called shock positioning is possible. The legs are positioned higher than the head, for example, the patient lies on their back and the legs are placed on a chair/stool. This is intended to increase the return of the blood to the heart and improve the supply of organs.

No shock position for B injuries

However, there are a number of shock states in which the shock positioning is not useful and even harms. Many rescue workers remember these cases with a donkey bridge. It reads: “B = shock position nee”. These include the following 6 Bs:

    • Pear: visible and invisible head and skull injuries, fluid leakage from nose and/or ears
    • Chest: pain in the heart and chest area
    • Abdomen: Injuries or pain in the abdomen
    • Legs: open broken legs with protruding bones or any suspicion of a broken leg
    • Pelvis: Injuries in the pelvic area
    • Hump: Injuries to the back and spine, especially with numbness or paralysis of the limbs or uncontrolled urination and stool.

Don’t panic about first aid

Most people very rarely get into situations where they have to respond to shock. Most often this happens in traffic and work accidents. No matter how severe the accident is: First get an overview, then secure the accident area and then alert the emergency services. After that, you can give first aid. This is the best way to help yourself and others to survive a state of shock in good health.

Everything About A Cough

Talk about everything about a cough the possible causes and treatment, cough is less of a disease in its own right than a symptom of respiratory disease. It occurs, for example, when we have choked. However, coughing can also indicate serious medical conditions such as heart failure or reflux disease.

Definition

Who does not know the nights disturbed by a cold-related cough or the pain of a dry cough or dry cough? The bronchi are burning and you are short of breath. After a coughing fit, we sometimes feel like we have sprinted 100 meters. If the cough then loosens a little and produces sputum, this is often perceived as a relief.

Cough is not an independent disease in the medical sense, but a symptom. As a rule, a cough is triggered by illness. The most common are respiratory infections such as bronchitis, colds, or the flu. Allergies, asthma, or smoker’s cough are other common causes of coughs. Heart failure or drug side effects such as the ACE inhibitor cough are also causes of cough.

Symptoms

Doctors classify the symptom of cough into categories. First of all, a distinction is made according to the duration:

    • According to the medical definition, acute cough lasts up to 8 weeks.
    • Subacute cough is a classification that is sometimes used for coughs lasting between 3 and 8 weeks.
    • Chronic cough is the name given to a cough that lasts longer than 8 weeks.

In addition to this distinction based on duration, there is a division into productive and unproductive or dry cough:

    • Productive coughing is accompanied by increased secretion and expectoration.
    • Unproductive (dry cough) is also known as a dry cough. Mucus does not form with this form of cough. Therefore, unproductive cough is dry, so it remains without expectoration.

Everything About A Cough

Symptoms Of Productive Cough

A productive cough is characterized by the fact that the cough removes sputum from the airways or lungs. Often a productive cough begins with a dry cough. After usually 1 to 3 days, often accompanied by a sore throat, there is an increased production of mucus. This bronchial mucus is transported out of the airways or the lungs as sputum via the cough reflex.

Symptoms Of Unproductive Cough

An unproductive cough feels hard and painful, often burning. It does not produce sputum. Coughing fits that can last for minutes are also typical of dry coughs. Coughing attacks are said to occur more frequently at night and thus deprive the sick of sleep. Oftentimes, a dry cough is accompanied by allergy symptoms. Heartburn can also occur along with a dry cough.

More Symptoms Of Cough

The frequency and sound of coughing attacks are further characteristics that can sometimes even be used to determine the cause. Barking cough in small children, for example, suggests pseudo croup. An attack-like cough with a high repetition frequency like a staccato is typical of whooping cough (pertussis). A morning cough, often with copious expectoration, is particularly common among smokers.

Causes

The Cough Reflex

The cause of cough is the cough reflex. This is an innate protective mechanism of the body. The cough reflex has the task of protecting the respiratory tract from damaging influences and of removing secretions such as mucus and foreign bodies such as dust or swallowed items.

The cough reflex is triggered by receptors in the mucous membranes of the larynx, the trachea, and the larger bronchi. They react to mechanical stimuli such as those caused by secretions (mucus), foreign bodies (smoke, dust, swallowed things) or other stimuli (inflammation, gases). These stimuli reach a certain brain region, the medulla oblongata, via the vagus nerve (nervus vagus or 10th cranial nerve).

The medulla oblongata houses the respiratory center and is located in the brain stem. These nerve fibers are activated, which cause a sudden contraction of the diaphragm and the muscles of the abdominal wall and intercostal. In addition, the glottis is narrowed and extreme pressure builds up under the closed larynx.

When the lid of the larynx opens, exhalation occurs suddenly. With this impulse, foreign bodies or secretions are thrown out of the windpipe like an explosion. When coughing, enormous forces act on the larynx muscles. With strong coughing attacks, the air flows through the larynx at speeds up to the sound limit.

Causes Of Productive Cough

A productive cough is most often a symptom of a respiratory infection. These are, for example, the flu or cold, which in turn are accompanied by fever, runny nose, and a more or less pronounced feeling of illness. If the underlying disease is not healed properly or if there are constant new infections, the cough can become chronic; doctors speak of chronic bronchitis.

Causes Dry Cough

Dry cough is usually a reaction to a variety of harmful stimuli. These include smoke, dust, gases or chemical vapors. A very common typical example is the smoker’s cough.

Other causes of dry cough are severe respiratory diseases such as whooping cough, tuberculosis or lung cancer (bronchial carcinoma) as well as pulmonary embolism or emphysema. Allergic asthma or other allergies can also trigger a dry cough.

Other Causes Of Cough

Medicines can also trigger a cough. For example, this is a common side effect of some drugs for high blood pressure, such as ACE inhibitors.

Irritation from stomach acid when stomach contents flow back into the esophagus (reflux disease) also leads to coughing. This is often accompanied by heartburn and acid regurgitation.

Examination

Diagnosing cough is easy based on the symptoms. To find out the exact cause, your doctor will first ask you in detail. This is followed by a physical examination, during which mainly the breathing sounds are listened to.

In the case of a productive cough, the color and texture of the sputum indicate the possible cause:

    • Clear whitish sputum: mostly caused by viral upper respiratory infections such as colds or flu
    • Yellowish or green sputum: indication of a possible additional bacterial infection in viral respiratory diseases
    • The bloody build-up is an indication of serious lung diseases such as pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, or lung cancer. In addition, the sputum is sometimes bloody if the blood vessels in the airways or the lungs have been damaged by swallowed objects or other injuries. Bloody sputum is usually a medical emergency and should be investigated immediately.
    • Brown or black sputum: especially common in smokers, often signs of advanced lung damage from chronic bronchitis or COPD.

At times, complex diagnostics may be necessary to find the cause of the cough. These more extensive examinations are usually carried out by specialists. As a rule, your family doctor will refer you to a pulmonologist (pulmonologist) for this purpose. For heart-related coughs, cardiologists are the specialists of choice. In the case of gastrointestinal diseases as the cause, the path leads to the gastroenterologist and in the case of allergies to the allergologist.

Treatment

Treatment for cough is based on the cause. If a cough is not triggered by a serious underlying disease, home remedies are usually well suited to relieve the excruciating urge to cough. If the cough does not improve within a few days, the first thing you should do is see a family doctor so that the cause of the cough can be found. Only then can meaningful treatment be initiated.

There are a number of medications your doctor can use to treat coughs. If necessary, he will treat infection or inflammation as the cause of the cough, for example with antibiotics. If ACE inhibitors are responsible for the cough, he will change the medication. In the event of a cough accompanied by heartburn and acid regurgitation, the doctor will order a gastroscopy and then treat the gastric acid reflux.

Do not take coughing lightly. This is especially true if the cough:

    • lasts longer than 2 weeks (for infants, toddlers, or children: longer than 3 days)
    • is accompanied by fever or severe malaise
    • occurs new and without a traceable harmless cause
    • with bloody, brown, or black obstruction
    • is accompanied by a high fever and/or extreme fatigue.

More information about treatment and self-help, as well as home remedies for coughs:

    • bronchitis
    • COPD
    • cough

Prevention

Coughing as a result of respiratory infections can hardly be prevented in a targeted manner. Basically, it is advisable to strengthen the immune system. A varied diet rich in vitamins and exercise in the fresh air strengthens the immune system and therefore helps prevent coughs. Smokers should give up smoking, especially if they have a smoker’s cough.